A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: codeigniter/Common.php

Line Number: 148

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Only variables should be passed by reference

Filename: database/DB.php

Line Number: 133

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: getimagesize(/srv/www/vhosts/mbair/images/figures/no_image.jpg): failed to open stream: No such file or directory

Filename: controllers/figure.php

Line Number: 40

Manitoba from the Air
Image Options
Show Trace
Description
Spring Sapping Near Wigle Springs on the Assiniboine River Below Brandon

 

In this area the Assiniboine 1 has incised itself through the sands of the Assiniboine Delta into the underlying clay. Springs emanate from river cliffs on the outside of the river bend originating at the junction of the permeable sands and impermeable clay. Slow headward erosion by the spring water has led to cliff retreat of about 0.9 miles (1.4 km) in a northerly direction 2. Four nebulously shaped lakes 3 are located in hollows in the flat area left by the cliff retreat. Most of the water finds its way into a small stream 4 that enters the Assiniboine from the northeast. Most of the embayment is wooded 5 as are the banks of the Assiniboine 6. To the north and west of the river is a sand plain 7, but in the southeast relic sand dunes can be seen 8. The plain is mainly grass covered—light-toned 9—with occasional patches of deciduous trees—dark-toned 10. Scattered over the plain are intermediate-toned patches of creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis) 11.

The items in a compound 12 are probably associated with Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Shilo just off the photo to the east. Trails across the area are light-toned 13 because vegetation has been removed exposing the underlying sand.

 

Figure 3.44

Spring Sapping Near Wigle Springs on the Assiniboine River Below Brandon