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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Preface

This e-book evolved from my long-time interest in Manitoba's geography even though I now live on the west coast far from the plains and the Canadian Shield. Also for approximately 25 years I taught a course to Brandon University students about air-photo interpretation and other forms of remote sensing. Almost 10 years ago I began to think seriously of a book aimed at describing Manitoba's geography using remotely sensed images. At the time I was a member of the Geography Department at Brandon University and applied to the university's research committee (BURC) for a grant to pursue the project. The small grant that I was awarded enabled me to purchase some maps and air photos. I thank the committee for its support.

Initially I intended to write a printed book but it became obvious that this would not be possible mainly because reproducing remotely sensed images, especially those in colour, is expensive. Fortunately John Everitt came up with the idea of an e-book. I am grateful to him for this as well as for answering numerous questions concerning the human geography of Manitoba. Also, along with Christoph Stadel, who suggested the title, he has written a foreword. The three of us—Welsted, Everitt, and Stadel—worked together in the Geography Department at Brandon University for close to 20 years and it is satisfying to combine to produce one more work on the geography of Manitoba. Everitt took the e-book idea to Robert Annis, Director of the Rural Development Institute (RDI) at Brandon University, who enthusiastically embraced the project and agreed to its publication by RDI. Since then he has overseen its production and has provided the backing of RDI's name and facilities.

I have been collecting images of Manitoba for more than 40 years. There was nothing systematic about this except that I tried to obtain images that would be useful in an air photo interpretation course. Some of the images I have included in the e-book were given to me by former students so long ago that I cannot remember who gave me what. I have listed the relevant figures at the end of this preface. If any of my former students recognizes an image as his/hers I would be grateful if they would let me know so that I can make the appropriate acknowledgement. Also, I wish to recognize the efforts of several former students who helped me to check air photos against the ground situation without either they or me realizing at the time that their work would contribute to this e-book. They are Doug Braden, Tim Conlin, Jeff Dechka, Al Friesen, Brian McGregor, and Sherry Lynn Punak.

Once I began sorting images for publication, I realized that gaps would have to be filled if a reasonably complete description of Manitoba's geography were to be written. In searching for air photos my students and I were helped by Jackie McMahon at the Manitoba Air Photo Library. Over the past few years she has cheerfully located air photos and data about them, going far beyond the normal requirements of her job. Her efforts are much appreciated. Also at the Manitoba Air Photo Library, Val Borkowsky has been very supportive of my endeavors. I am grateful for her encouragement and for permission to use Manitoba Air Photo Library images. I also wish to acknowledge the help in recent years of Gerry Lux, Acting Manager, Manitoba Remote Sensing Centre, and over a long time span of Roy Dixon and Hartley Pokrant at the Manitoba Remote Sensing Centre. I am also grateful to Rob Gerry at Manitoba Hydro, Dan Miller at Manitoba Infrastructure and Highways, and Roger Schroeder formerly at Manitoba Water Stewardship. The organizations for which they work were responsible for several of the images I have used and they helped me to gain access to the images and to obtain the necessary permission to use them (the relevant figures are listed at the end).

Once I had selected the images I began interpreting them, although to some degree these two stages overlapped. The result was an annotated transparent overlay for each image. These were sent to Dion Wiseman who supervised the next stage. A group of Brandon University students, Patrick Elves, Thomas Hood, and Stephen Saban scanned the images and extracted the physical and cultural features through on-screen digitizing. I applaud their efforts at what must have been tedious work, but I hope they will have improved their knowledge of "the Keystone Province." I am also indebted to Greg Misener for his imaginative design of the website and to Patrick Johanneson for all the work that went into producing the final version seen in this e-book.

Two years ago I had a pile of photos with tracings and a large pile of handwritten notes. The notes I sent to Sylvia Henry at RDI who miraculously managed to decipher them and transform them into readable form. She has been responsible not only for all the word processing but also initiated the development of a glossary. Her role in the production of this e-book has been enormous and she deserves special recognition for her efforts. Also at RDI I wish to thank Bev Lischka and Ryan Gibson for help with the organization of the project and in Ryan's case for presenting it at the Prairie Division of the Canadian Association of Geographers (PCAG) meeting at Weyburn, Saskatchewan in September 2007. I am also greatly indebted to Beth Peers who read the original version of the text, correcting my punctuation and grammar. She has saved me from many errors of syntax and style but the remaining errors and idiosyncrasies are all my own.

The interpretations are mine, but in several cases I consulted experts to advise me. In this context I am grateful to Tom Carter (University of Winnipeg) who helped me to interpret images of Winnipeg; to Doug Grossart (Brandon) for help in interpreting agricultural practices, to Jack McKinnon (owner of Prairie Agri Photo in Carman), who not only helped me to interpret infrared photos of agriculture, but also allowed me to use many images obtained by his company; and to Roy Yeske (formerly Vice President, Transmission and Distribution, Sask Power) for help in interpreting photos of electricity installations. I have also relied heavily for information in chapters 2 and 3 on two magnificent air photo interpretation books describing the geology and landforms of Canada, one by Mollard (n.d.) and the other by Mollard and Janes (1984). Finally, in this list of acknowledgements none of this would have been possible without the constant support and encouragement over the past six years of my wife, Kathleen Georgison.

I stress that the results are my interpretations of images. Although much information can be obtained this way, there is no substitute for ground observations. I have visited only some of the locations shown and would be pleased if readers would inform me of any errors. One advantage of an e-book is that corrections can be easily made without redoing the whole book.

Several different types of image are used including panchromatic air photos (verticals, obliques, and mosaics), colour air photos, colour infrared air photos, radar images (spaceborne and airborne), and multispectral scanner images. However, there is a heavy emphasis on vertical panchromatic air photos because at the time I was collecting images they were the most readily available, and the least expensive. Many of them are old, illustrating situations that have since changed. The e-book format allows for easy updating when newer images become available. Sequential images (of the same area at different times) are used to illustrate changes, for example along river channels and at the edges of cities. I have given reference data (metadata) for each image including a scale; this is the scale of the original image not of the view seen on the screen. A line scale is drawn on each image. In some cases metadata is missing, but it can be added if it becomes available at later date. On occasion I refer to the use of a magnifying lens; this does, of course, refer to viewing the original photograph.

The e-book is intended for use by anybody interested in the geography of Manitoba and I have tried to write at a level that makes this possible. In particular it is intended to complement the book, The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People (Welsted, Everitt, and Stadel, 1996). To this end the topics are presented in the same order as in the earlier book. Some aspects of the province's geography lend themselves to display on remotely sensed images whereas others do not. For example, landforms and settlement patterns are well displayed whereas climate and political preferences are not. This results in an imbalance in the number of figures in each chapter, a trend that is exaggerated by my own interest in landforms and water resources. There are two additions to the earlier book; transport (past and present) is given a separate chapter whereas it was subsumed under other headings in the older book. Also a short chapter on legal issues and law enforcement is included at the end. The use of technical terms is kept to a minimum and those that are used are explained in chapter one, a brief description of the principles of image interpretation, and are also included in a glossary.

None of the images was taken specifically for this e-book and very few of them were taken by me. I have had to rely on the goodwill of many people and organizations who have allowed me to use their images. The following organizations and individuals have given permission for use of their products, either specifically to me for use in this e-book or in the form of permission for use by the general public.

The National Air Photo Library © Produced under license from Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada with permission of Natural Resources Canada. Figures: 1.1a, 1.1b, 1.2a, 1.3a, 1.3b, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7b, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15a, 1.15b, 1.15c, 1.16, 1.17, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16a, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.29, 3.30, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40, 3.41, 3.42, 3.43, 3.45, 3.47, 3.48, 3.49, 3.50, 3.51, 3.52, 3.54, 3.55, 3.56, 3.57, 3.58, 3.59, 3.60, 3.61, 3.62, 3.64, 3.65, 3.66, 3.67, 3.68, 3.69, 3.70, 3.71, 3.72, 3.75, 3.76, 3.77, 3.78, 3.79, 3.80, 3.81, 3.83, 3.86, 3.87, 3.88, 3.89, 3.90, 3.91, 3.94, 3.95, 3.96, 3.97, 3.98, 3.99, 3.100, 3.101, 3.102, 3.103, 3.104, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4a, 4.4b, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.7, 8.10, 8.13, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.20, 8.22, 8.25, 8.26, 8.28, 8.30, 8.31, 8.33, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 8.41, 8.42, 8.43, 8.44, 8.45, 8.49, 8.50, 8.52, 8.54, 8.56, 8.59, 8.60, 8.61, 8.62, 8.65, 8.66, 8.67, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6a, 10.1, 10.5, 10.7, 10.9, 10.11, 10.12, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.9, 11.11, 11.12, 12.4, 12.9, 12.11, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.21, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.7, 13.8, 13.11, 13.12, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.25, 15.1, 15.2, 15.9, 15.10, 15.13, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.25, 16.31, 16.34, 16.39, 16.43, 16.44, 16.46, 16.47, 16.48, 16.49, 16.51, 16.53, 16.54, 16.60, 16.67, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.7, 17.13, 17.14, 17.17, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.24, 17.27, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.22, 18.23, 18.26, 18.28, 18.29, 18.30, 18.32, 18.33, 18.34, 18.35, 18.36, 18.37, 18.38, 18.40, 18.41, 18.43, 18.44, 18.45, 18.47, 18.48, 18.49, 18.50, 18.51, 18.52, 18.55, 18.59, 18.60, 19.1, 19.2, 19.5, 19.6, 19.12.

The National Air Photo Library © Produced under license from Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada with permission of Natural Resources Canada. Figures: 2.1, 2.2.

Canada Centre for Remote Sensing: 16.41.

Manitoba Conservation Manitoba Air Photo Library. Figures: 1.7a, 2.10, 3.9, 3.82, 5.20, 5.28, 7.10, 7.11, 10.2, 11.13, 12.1, 12.3, 12.6, 12.8, 12.12, 13.6, 14.11, 15.3, 15.5, 15.7, 15.8, 16.19, 16.24, 16.42, 17.8, 17.9, 17.29, 17.30, 18.27, 18.56.

Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation. Figures: 1.12, 3.73, 3.74, 3.92, 7.2, 8.11, 8.14, 8.55, 8.63, 8.64, 8.70, 9.1, 9.7, 10.4, 10.6, 11.5, 11.7, 12.5, 12.10, 14.23, 14.24, 16.5, 16.40, 16.66, 16.68, 17.10, 17.18, 17.26, 18.21, 18.25, 18.53, 18.54, 19.3, 19.7, 19.10, 19.13.

Manitoba Hydro. Figures: 6.2, 10.3, 10.8, 11.1, 11.6, 11.8, 11.10, 14.17, 16.26, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.33, 16.35, 16.36, 16.38, 18.57, 18.58.

Government of Manitoba (Manitoba Conservation/Manitoba Water Stewardship). Figures: 16.50, 16.56, 16.58, 16.59, 16.62, 16.64.

Prairie Agri Photo. Figures: 5.8, 8.3, 8.5, 8.8, 8.9, 8.15, 8.19, 8.21, 8.23, 8.24, 8.27, 8.29, 8.32, 8.34, 8.46, 8.47, 8.48, 8.51, 8.53, 8.57, 8.58, 12.2, 12.7, 13.10, 13.14, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 16.52, 16.55, 16.57, 16.61, 16.63, 16.65, 17.6, 17.11, 17.12, 17.16, 17.23, 17.28.

Agricore (formerly Manitoba Pool). Figures: 18.24, 18.31.

Hudson Bay Company archives, Archives of Manitoba. Figure: 19.8 HBCA G. 1/202. W. S. Gore, 1873. Figure: 19.9 HBCA RG 1/87/F/15C, B. A. Everitt, 1920.

Dirk Aberson. Figure: 12.13.

Concord Aerial Photo. Figure: 8.12.

John Everitt. Figure: 12.14, 15.16.

D. McArthur. Figure: 8.68.

John Welsted. Figures: 12.15.

Ray Wilson. Figures: 7.10a, 7.10b.

Google Earth. Figures: 3.5, 3.35, 3.93, 3.105, 3.106, 8.6, 9.6b, 10.10, 12.20, 13.9, 13.13, 14.22, 16.27, 16.32, 17.25, 18.61, 19.14, 19.15.

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). Figures: 2.4, 3.12, 4.10, 14.2, 15.11, 15.12.

U. S. Geological Survey / EROS, Sioux Falls, S.D., U.S.A (Landsat Images). Figures: 2.3, 2.5, 3.46, 3.84, 3.85, 4.8, 5.9, 5.10, 12.16, 14.1.

ESA / ERS (European Space Administration). Figure: 14.3.

http://www.gc.ca/programs/surface/bridges/images/standrews. Figure: 16.12.

Carroll and Graf. Figure: 6.2a.

The following figures use photographs given to me by former students: 3.27, 3.28, 3.44, 3.53, 3.63, 5.4, 6.5, 8.69, 15.4, 18.42, 18.46.

I have not been able to determine a source for figures: 1.2b, 3.16b, 3.31, 4.9, 16.37, 16.45, 17.15, 17.19, 18.39, 19.11.