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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Chapter 8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns

Introduction

Two factors—railway lines and the DLS system— influence the location and form of settlements in southern Manitoba. Most settlements are located on railway lines, and many have a characteristic T-shape with the bar of the T being a road that parallels the railway line and the stem being a major road at right angles to the line. This shape occurs in the smallest of hamlets (e.g. Coulter) as well as towns (e.g. Carberry) and cities (e.g. Brandon).

The arrangement can produce a road orientation that is at an angle to the squares of the DLS (e.g. Hartney and Dauphin). Other settlements have a road system that harmonizes with the DLS into which the urban pattern is slotted, with roads trending north/south and east/west (e.g. Rapid City and Shoal Lake). In a few cases the direction of the railway line is directly east/west or north/south so that roads that are parallel, and at right angles, to it also harmonize with the DLS. Other settlements have an older part in which roads are oriented with respect to the railway line and a newer part in which roads harmonize with the DLS (e.g. Holland and Elkhorn). Finally, a few newer settlements (Shilo, Wasagaming and Pinawa) have no direct connection with a railway line, nor do roads harmonize with the DLS, other factors such as natural features and the whim of planners determining road directions.

8.1: Coulter

The small hamlet of Coulter in the southwestern corner of Manitoba illustrates the classic T-shape of many prairie settlements in its simplest form. The southwest/northeast trending CP line 1 is paralleled by a road 2 with another at right angles to it 3. A large elevator 4—identified by the shape of its shadow—is located beside the railway line, but even at this early date (1958) before rural depopulation had really set in, Coulter contained few services and the population was under 50.

The Souris River 5 flows northward on the flat floor of a steep-sided spillway 6. The large southward loop by the railway line 7 seems anomalous, but it exists so that the railway can run obliquely down/up the spillway sides 8 avoiding steep gradients. The road—PR 251 9—is more tolerant of steep slopes, but even so it runs obliquely across the west bank of the spillway 10 before passing north of Coulter.

Other features of note in this flat, semi-arid area open to strong winds are: the scarcity of trees except in draws in the spillway banks—especially the west side 11 that faces north of west and therefore has a wetter microclimate than the opposite side; several dugouts 12; four small dams 13 designed to retain water in ephemeral creeks; and barriers along the railway line 14 to retain drifting snow.

Figure 8.1: Coulter

Figure 8.1: Coulter

Figure 8.1

Vertical air photograph: A16390-150

Flight height: 10,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.63 mm

Scale 1:17,700 (approx.)

Date: October 16, 1958

Location: Townships 1 and 2; Ranges 26 and 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/2 Waskada


8.2: Roseisle

The small hamlet of Roseisle is located at the foot of Pembina Mountains about 15 miles (24 km) west of Carman. Faint indications of Lake Agassiz strandlines can be seen in the southwest 1. In contrast to the land shown on figure 8.1, large areas of woodland remain 2.

The CN line runs west-southwest/east-northeast across the area 3 with an elevator on a siding at Roseisle 4. In the hamlet that had a population of less than 50 when the photo was taken, a road runs parallel to the line 5 but set back some distance from it. In contrast to Coulter, two roads 6 run at right angles to this road. In 1958 PR 245 passed through Roseisle and continued east 7 and west 8.

Figure 8.2: Roseisle

Figure 8.2: Roseisle

Figure 8.2

Vertical air photograph: A16184-18

Flight height: 10,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:19,000 (approx.)

Date: July 22, 1958

Location: Township 6; Range 7 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


8.3: Roseisle in 2000

The most obvious difference from 1958 (figure 8.2) is that the railway line has completely disappeared; the only evidence of its former existence is a faint impression in the east 1. Also PR 245 2 in the north has been straightened, and the main street 3 of the hamlet is slightly wider. Two narrow roads 4 run south from it to a building 5 sheltered by trees 6. Also at least 8 houses 7 sheltered by trees 8 have been built east of PR 240 9. Two large buildings—light-toned—at the east end of the main street 10 may house curling and/or hockey rinks. These were not present in 1958.

Figure 8.3: Roseisle in 2000

Figure 8.3: Roseisle in 2000

Figure 8.3

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2000

Location: Township 6; Range 7 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


8.4: Snowflake

Snowflake is located in southern Manitoba south of the Pembina Valley about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Pilot Mound. Already by 1980 its population had decreased to less than 50.

As at Roseisle, a road 1 is located parallel to the CN line 2 with—in this case—three roads at right angles 3. The one large building in Snowflake probably houses a hockey rink 4. South of Snowflake the direction of the rail line changes slightly 5 with a branch line leading off to the west 6. PR 201 7 crosses the area east/west, and PR 242 8 runs north/south.

Most of the land has been cleared for agriculture with only occasional patches of trees 9 and several infilled sloughs 10. Large shelterbelts protect most of the farms 11 which are widely spaced in this sparsely populated area.

Figure 8.4: Snowflake

Figure 8.4: Snowflake

Figure 8.4

Vertical air photograph: A16181-125

Flight height: 10,150 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: July 20, 1958

Location: Township 1; Range 9 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/2 Pilot Mound


8.5: Snowflake in 2000

As was the case with Roseisle, the railway line has gone, leaving behind only faint traces 1 of its former existence. However, two elevators 2—identified by their shadow shape—still remain. There are fewer houses than in figure 8.4, but a second large building, long and narrow 3, has been added in the east; this probably houses a curling rink. North of it is a primitive baseball diamond 4. In the west a grain crop has been partly swathed, resulting in narrow even rows 5.

Figure 8.5: Snowflake in 2000

Figure 8.5: Snowflake in 2000

Figure 8.5

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2006

Location: Township 1; Range 9 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/2 Pilot Mound


8.6: Arden

This image of an area about 8 miles (13 km) east-northeast of Neepawa illustrates the influence of even very minor landforms on route ways and settlements in southern Manitoba. At least six Lake Agassiz strandlines 1 are visible, the highest and therefore oldest of which is the Arden Ridge 2. Sand/gravel pits have been excavated into it 3 as well as into two lower strandlines 4. The Whitemud River 5 flowing eastward from Riding Mountain is deflected southward 6 by the Arden Ridge, which it does not cross until a point south of this location. Likewise, Snake Creek 7 is deflected south to join the Whitemud River. The CP line (now abandoned) used to follow the ridge 8 before veering off to the west 9. The small settlement of Arden 10, whose symbol is the prairie crocus, which grows well on the sandy soils developed on the strandlines, is located in the centre of the image. It is located on the Arden Ridge mainly along two roads 11 that parallel the railway line.

Figure 8.6: Arden

Figure 8.6: Arden

Figure 8.6

Google image 2006, Google Digital Globe

Scale: 1:35,200 (approx.)

Date: pre 2006

Location: Township 7; Ranges 13 and 14WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/6 Arden


8.7: Napinka

Napinka, located southeast of the Souris River 1 in southwestern Manitoba, is slightly larger than settlements shown in figures 8.1 to 8.6, but has essentially the same layout. The CP line 2 is close to the edge of the photo, with the shadows of an elevator 3 and rail trucks located on a siding 4 just visible. A road is parallel to the railway line[i] on the northwest side 5 with the main street 6—slightly wider than others—at right angles to it. Other roads are parallel, and at right angles, to these. Large buildings include the school 7 and the curling rink 8.[ii] In addition to the railway line, PR 452 approaches the settlement from the south 9 and exits to the west 10. A gravel pit 11 is located near where the road crosses the Souris and probably provided materials for its construction.

The Souris meanders across the area with one clearly defined abandoned meander 12 and one abandoned stretch of river 13. A small dam can be seen at 14. Most of the area has been cleared for agriculture, but woodland borders the river 15 as well as a small tributary creek 16.

Figure 8.7: Napinka

Figure 8.7: Napinka

Figure 8.7

Vertical air photograph: A20811-46

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 4; Range 25 and 26 WI

Map sheets 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney

Notes

[i] In most Manitoba settlements of this type there is a “railway road,” sometimes two, named “north railway road” and “south railway road”.

[ii] The curling rink is one of the last pieces of infrastructure lost to rural depopulation. In one extreme case at Scarth, eight miles south of Virden, the curling rink was the only building left in 1996 and was still in existence and used in 2007.



8.8: Belmont

Belmont located in the Tiger Hills is within easy reach (6 miles/ 9.6 km) of Pelican Lake (off the photo to the southwest). The northwest/southeast trending CN railway line 1 determined the layout of the hamlet. Roads are parallel 2, and at right angles 3, to the railway line which is no longer in use. One wide road 4 runs parallel to the line and another—the main street of the settlement—is at a right angle to that 5. There are several large buildings, probably stores along 6, and at the end of 7, the main street. A large light-toned building 7 in the north probably houses a hockey rink; a primitive baseball diamond 8 is located beside it. Most of the settlement is located southwest of the railway line, but some residential settlement exists northeast of the line. Fields of a grain crop 9 have been cut indicating a late summer date.

Figure 8.8: Belmont

Figure 8.8: Belmont

Figure 8.8

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:6000 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 5; Range 16 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

         

1:50,000 62G/6 Baldur


8.9: Rathwell

Rathwell is another small community with a road pattern dictated by the railway line. The CP railway line 1 runs south of the settlement; two elevators 2 and numerous grain storage bins 3 are located on a siding 4. A wide road 5 runs north of, and parallel to, the railway line with another wide road 6—the main street—at right angles to it. Other roads are parallel 7 to or at right angles 8 to the railway line. Several large buildings, probably stores 9, are located on the two wide roads. In the southeast are two long, narrow buildings 10, at least one of which probably houses a curling rink. Houses in the western part of the community are surrounded by tree shelterbelts 11. PTH 2 12, which runs east via St. Claude and Elm Creek to Winnipeg, and west through Treherne, Glenboro, and Wawanesa, bypasses Rathwell to the north. PR 244 13 follows the range line between ranges 8 and 9 WI southward to Manitou. Note the farm in the north centre 14; it has a wide shelterbelt to the north and west 15 and at least ten grain storage bins 16. At times it has been difficult to get grain accepted at elevators that were often full, creating the need to store grain on the farm. The field around the farm has been combined, resulting in wide indistinct rows of straw 17.

Figure 8.9: Rathwell

Figure 8.9: Rathwell

Figure 8.9

Vertical colour air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:    ; lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 8 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/10Treherne


8.10: Foxwarren

The small settlement of Foxwarren (population 159 in 1986) is another classic example of a railway-oriented village. The CP line 1 passes through it with three elevators 2 on its southwest side. Two roads—one northeast of the line 3 and the other southwest 4—are parallel to the railway. Other roads are parallel and at right angles to the railway line producing a grid at 45 degrees to the section lines of the DLS system 5. As is usually the case with small Manitoba settlements, the hockey/curling rink can be identified, in this case west of the village 6.[i]

Other communication lines are Highway 16—The Yellowhead Route 7—that bypasses Foxwarren to the north and PR 475 8 that deviates from a straight line to cross Snake Creek 9, a north bank tributary of the Assiniboine River (off the photo to the southwest).

Figure 8.10: Foxwarren

Figure 8.10: Foxwarren

Figure 8.10

Vertical air photograph: A15530-83

Flight height: 19,400 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale 1:36,200 (approx.)

Date: October 7, 1956

Location: Townships 17 and 18; Range 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/11 Binscarth

Notes

[i] Foxwarren is a famous hockey centre in Manitoba having produced a number of well-known NHL players.



8.11: Vertical Air Photo of Strathclair

The hamlet of Strathclair, located in an area of typical ground moraine topography, is slightly larger than settlements shown previously (figures 8.1 to 8.10) having a population of 390 in 1986. It is another example of the railway line determining road orientation. Here the CP line 1 runs along the southern edge of the settlement with South Railway Street 2 and North Railway Street 3 parallel to it; the latter even has a slight bend in the east 4 to maintain the parallel arrangement. Other roads are at right angles and parallel to the two Railway Streets. Highway 16—The Yellowhead Route 5—bypasses Strathclair to the north.

Given the large scale of the photo, several large buildings can be observed and some identified. In the east are a rink 6 (hockey and curling) and a school 7 with cars—small oblong objects 8—parked to the south and east. Most of Strathclair is located north of the railway line south of which is an elevator 9. Oil storage cylinders 10 are located northwest of the elevator. Cars are parked obliquely along North Railway Street 11 outside a series of larger buildings 12 which are probably stores. Newer residential areas are along section lines south 13 and north 14 of the hamlet. The large angular areas, one very dark-toned 15 and the other lighter 16 are sewage lagoons with a light-toned line indicating the location of a buried pipeline 17 leading to them.

Figure 8.11: Vertical Air Photo of Strathclair

Figure 8.11: Vertical Air Photo of Strathclair

Figure 8.11

Vertical air photograph: MB89004 PTH 16

Flight height: 7,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.028 mm

Scale: 1:11,500 (approx.)

Date: April 28, 1989

Location: Township 16; Range 22 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/8 Newdale


8.12: Oblique Air Photo of Strathclair

The photograph is taken looking westward with the largest scale in the foreground, decreasing away from the viewer. The photo looks along the CP line 1 with the elevator 2 located south of it and South Railway Street 3 and North Railway Street 4 parallel to it, the latter with a bend 5 to maintain the parallelism. In the foreground are a school 6 and a rink (hockey and curling) 7. Stores are located along North Railway Street 8. The sewage lagoons 9 can be seen in the background with even further away Salt Lake to the left 10 and North Salt Lake 11 to the right.

Figure 8.12: Oblique Air Photo of Strathclair

Figure 8.12: Oblique Air Photo of Strathclair

Figure 8.12

Oblique air photo by Concord Aerial Photo

Date:

Location: Township 16; Range 22 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/8 Newdale


8.13: Elphinstone

Elphinstone is another hamlet with a road pattern determined by the railway line; but here the CP line 1 follows a curved route to cross the Little Saskatchewan River 2. As a result the road nearest the line is also curved 3 with other roads as near as possible at right angles. Surprisingly for such a small settlement (population 201 in 1986) in an agriculturally marginal area, there are three elevators 4 on the line. East of the settlement is a racetrack 5.

North and east of Elphinstone is the Keeseekoowenin First Nation (boundary marked by dashed line). Much of the area is wooded 6. In this topographically complicated area the rigid grid of the DLS breaks down under the influence of the topography. The CP line is curved to follow the Little Saskatchewan River valley. PTH 45 7 is curved, and PR 354 from the south 8 bends as it crosses the Little Saskatchewan River.

Figure 8.13: Elphinstone

Figure 8.13: Elphinstone

Figure 8.13

Vertical air photograph: A11569-169

Flight height: 7,920 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date: August 18, 1948

Location: Township 18; Range 21 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/9 Elphinstone


8.14: Treherne

The Village of Treherne (population 646 in 2006) is located in the headwaters of the Boyne River 1 northeast of a set of light-toned drumlinoid features 2. It is another settlement with a road system determined by the railway line, in this case the CP line 3. The result is a pattern that is skewed with respect to the section lines 4 of the DLS grid. Most of Treherne is south of the line with only small new developments in the northeast 5 and south 6 that harmonize with the DLS system. In this relatively well-watered area of south-central Manitoba, streets are tree-lined 7, and trees shelter schools in the south 8. The dark-toned areas north of Treherne 9 are sewage lagoons, and the oblong light-toned areas to the east are straw stacks 10.

Figure 8.14: Treherne

Figure 8.14: Treherne

Figure 8.14

Vertical air photograph: MB92010-7

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:30,000 (approx.)

Date: May 6, 1992

Location: Townships 7 and 8; Ranges 9 and 10 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/10 Treherne


8.15: Treherne in 2000

This large-scale colour air photo shows the pattern of roads in Treherne determined by the direction of the CP railway line 1. The village exhibits the classic T-shape of prairie settlements with a road parallel to the railway line 2—the bar of the T—and a road at right angles to that 3—the stem of the T. The latter is the main road of the settlement; it is wider than roads parallel to it and has large buildings 4, probably stores, along it. Cars can be seen 5 parked on this street. Several things can be seen on this photo that are not obvious in Figure 8.14: 

1)  Vehicles (trucks 6 and cars 7) can be seen on PTH 2 8 that bypasses the village to the north. 

2)  Two elevators 9, identified by their shadow shape, are located on a siding 10 off the railway line. 

3)  In the northern part of the village is a large new building 11, possibly a senior citizens’ home or a hospital.

4)  In the southwest a field has been cut and partly combined 12.

5)  The large building 13 near the centre of the photo is probably a hockey arena.

Figure 8.15: Treherne in 2000

Figure 8.15: Treherne in 2000

Figure 8.15

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale 1:7,400 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 10 WI

Map sheets 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                   1:50,000 62G/10 Treherne


8.16: Hartney

The town of Hartney (population 400 in 2006) occupies most of section 16, township 6, range 23 WI on flat, rich agricultural land southeast of the Souris River 1 with no topographic barrier to development. The Souris exhibits two definite abandoned channels 2. The CP line 3 runs through the centre of town with roads parallel to it on either side. On the northwest there is an intervening green space 4—grass and trees—between the line and the road, and in the southeast the equivalent space is occupied by elevators 5 and associated buildings. PTH 21 used to run through the centre of town 6 with residential roads at right angles to it. The result was an almost square town plan. Now, however, PTH 21 7 bypasses Hartney, a relatively new development at the time the photo was taken. Also, the CN line 8, now abandoned as evidenced by the broken bridge 9, used to run south of town with little direct effect on its layout.

At the large scale of the photo, individual buildings can be located and identified. As is often the case the most obvious are a rink 10 (ice hockey and curling) in the northeast and a school 11 in the southeast. Sewage lagoons, one dark-toned 12 and one light 13, can be seen in the north.

Figure 8.16: Hartney

Figure 8.16: Hartney

Figure 8.16

Vertical air photograph: A19905-120

Flight height: 9,450 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.16 mm

Scale: 1:16,500 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Township 6; Range 23 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney


8.17: Rivers

The town of Rivers is located north of the Little Saskatchewan River 1 in an area of ground moraine topography. In contrast to Hartney (figure 8.16), Rivers is a one-sided town with virtually all its buildings located north of the CN line 2 avoiding the Little Saskatchewan River Valley to the south. The CN line approaches the town from the southeast 3 and splits into several sidings 4 with spurs leading to the north 5. Within the town roads run parallel to and at right angles to the CN line. The CP line 6 is also seen on the photo running along the Little Saskatchewan River Valley before looping to the west to cross the river. In addition to the railway lines, PTH 25 7 runs along the southern edge of town, and PR 250 8 leads northwards.

Although the air photo scale is small, some of the town’s infrastructure can be identified. A series of large buildings near the southern edge of town 9 are probably stores and a hotel; schools can be seen in the north 10 and west 11; and sewage lagoons 12 and a cemetery 13 are located outside town.

In the southern part of the Little Saskatchewan Valley is an area of outwash deposits 14, identified by remnants of water channels on the surface, with a large light-toned gravel pit 15 served by the CP line. Several other gravel pits 16 are located in the valley.

The Little Saskatchewan has been dammed to produce Lake Wahtopanah 17, originally for flood control and water supply, but recently it has attracted some recreational development along its shores 18. Both the dam 19 and a spillway at its south end 20 can be identified.

Rivers has had a checkered history. During WW II a Commonwealth Air Force Training Base was located at Rivers airport,[i] just off the photo to the west. It continued as a Canadian Forces Base until the 1960s when it was closed. Various attempts have been made—none of them very successful—to locate industries in the buildings of the base. Some of the buildings that housed people serving at the base can be seen in the southwest corner 21. Atypically, they are arranged along a mixture of straight and curved roads. The closing of the base and the failure of the industries led to a 29 percent drop in population between 1961 and 1996 (from 1,574 to 1,117), but it evened out at 1,119 in 2001 and increased to 1,193 in 2006.

The buildings seen in the southwest were houses for troops at the base. Here in this relatively modern development, we finally see roads with curves, almost completely absent from settlements show in figures 8.1 to 8.16.

Figure 8.17: Rivers

Figure 8.17: Rivers

Figure 8.17

Vertical air photo: A20472-71

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,400 (approx.)

Date: May 23, 1968

Location: Townships 12 and 13; Ranges 20 and 21 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

Notes

[i] Rivers was one of many such bases located across the prairies during World War II. The aim was to train flyers from Commonwealth countries in areas of flat land in the relative safety of Canada. A depressingly large number of these young men lost their lives: 18,039 in total including 3,000 in training (Reg Forbes, 2007).



8.18: Killarney

The town of Killarney is an agricultural centre in southern Manitoba, located on ground moraine topography, north of Killarney Lake 1. In some respects it is similar to Rivers (figure 8.17) in that most of the built-up area is located on one side of the railway line, in this case the south. The CN line 2 crosses the area from west-northwest to east-southeast. Killarney’s function as an agricultural centre is reflected in the fact that four elevators 3 were located on the line at the date the photo was taken. Roads run parallel to and at right angles to the line with one of the latter somewhat wider than the others 4. This is the main street along which several large buildings 5—stores and administrative buildings—are located. Main Street and the railway line form the T-shape characteristic of many prairie towns. Only in the south are roads influenced by the DLS system 6, and a few roads follow the lake outline 7. PTH 18 8 bypasses the town to the east.

The large scale of the photo makes it possible to identify individual buildings. Two large buildings, one near the centre of town 9 and one in the west 10, are probably schools, and the large round-topped building east of Main Street is the arena 11.

Killarney is a relatively prosperous agricultural center. It decreased in size from 2,366 in 1976 to 2,208 in 1996. It showed a modest increase to 2,221 in 2001 but dropped to 2,199 in 2006.

Figure 8.18: Killarney

Figure 8.18: Killarney

Figure 8.18

Vertical air photograph: A19904-207

Flight height: 9600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Townships 2 and 3; Range 17 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney


8.19: Killarney in 2000

This large-scale colour air photo demonstrates the superiority of colour compared with black and white in illustrating some aspects of the earth’s surface; for example, the concentration of commercial activities near the junction of a road paralleling the railway line and the main street at right angles to it is more apparent than in figure 8.18 1. Also the well-treed nature of the residential areas is very clear 2.

Although Killarney is not gaining population, several changes have occurred since 1967 (figure 8.18):

1)  There is more extensive house and cottage development on the south shore of the lake 3.

2)  A recreational area is now (in 2000) located at the southeast end of the lake; this includes a racetrack 4 and baseball diamond 5.

3)  Just to the northeast is a large new building, probably a hospital or a senior citizens home 6.

4)  In the east, just north of the railway line, commercial development has occurred; several buildings with many parked cars can be seen 7.

5)  One of the four elevators has gone, but three can still be identified on the basis of their shadow shape 8.

6)  Three long buildings are now located north of the railway line 9.

7)  A large elevator, probably one of the new concrete variety, is now located northwest of town 10.

8)  A trailer court is now located north of the lake in what was an open field 11.

Figure 8.19: Killarney in 2000

Figure 8.19:  Killarney in 2000

Figure 8.19

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:13,900 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Townships 2 and 3; Range 17 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney


8.20: Carberry

The Town of Carberry (population 1,502 in 2006) is located in a relatively flat part of the Assiniboine Delta. The photo was taken soon after the snowmelt, so a lot of standing water can be seen 1 as can wash lines indicating where water used to be 2. The town is located above the Assiniboine Delta Aquifer that provides abundant good quality ground water for residential and industrial use.

The CP line runs generally east/west through the area 3 with the north/south CN line 4 intersecting it at right angles.[i] Elevators are located on both lines 5. Roads in the town run parallel to and at right angles to the railway lines with most of them north of the CP and west of the CN line and at an angle to the DLS grid system. PTH 5 6 bypasses the town to the east and provincial road 351 7 runs through the northern edge of town.

The scale of the photo is smaller than that of figure 8.18. Nonetheless, some items of the town’s infrastructure can be identified: a long building in the north is probably a rink 8, a cemetery is located northwest of town 9, a racing track is to the southwest 10,[ii] and sewage lagoons are to the east 11.

In the south is, or was, Carberry airfield 12 that has the characteristic triangular shape of small prairie airfields.[iii] The field is no longer in use for airplanes but the buildings 13, including some built after the airport was abandoned, are used for processing potatoes. The uniformly textured sandy soils around Carberry, coupled with the availability of ground water for irrigation, make the area ideal for potato growing. The RM of North Cypress, in which Carberry is located, has the greatest area of irrigated crops of any rural municipality in Manitoba. Irrigation acreage in the RM increased from 8,601 acres (3,482 hectares) in 1988 to 54,417 acres (22,031 hectares) in 2001.[iv]

Figure 8.20: Carberry

Figure 8.20:  Carberry

Figure 8.20

Air photo: A23692-161

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: May 13, 1974

Location: Township 10; Ranges 14 and 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/14 Carberry

Notes

[i] Carberry was supposed to be located at a different site, but was moved at the whim of the railway builders. For details see Tyman, J. L. By Section Township and Range (Second Printing). Brandon: Brandon University, 1995, 42-43.

[ii] Harness racing is a traditional summer pastime in small settlements in southern Manitoba.

[iii] This shape allows for landing and take-off in six different wind directions.

[iv] For details see Gaia Consulting 2001 Manitoba Irrigation Survey. Portage la Prairie: The Association of Irrigation in Manitoba, 2002, figure 2.



8.21: Carberry in 2000

This large-scale colour air photo of the eastern part of Carberry shows several aspects of the town better than the black and white photo in figure 8.20, as well as changes that have taken place since that photo was taken (1974):

1)  The treed nature of the residential areas, particularly in the west 1, is more obvious.

2)  Shelterbelts in the north are easily identified. However, the more northerly of the two 2 did not exist in 1974, and the other one 3 has probably grown a lot in the intervening years.

3)  The wide main street 4, with numerous large buildings 5—probably stores—along it is much clearer than on figure 8.20.

4)  An enclosed area in the east 6 contains four baseball diamonds 7.

Changes that can be detected are:

1)  A connecting spur 8 runs between the CN line and the CP line in the southeast.

2)  Another spur line 9 runs southeast from the CP line. Trucks can be seen on this spur 10.

3)  Elevators that existed on both the CP line 11 and the CN line 12 have gone.

4)  A second long, narrow building 13 has been constructed north of the one in existence in 1974.

5)  Another large building 14, possibly a school, has been built south of that mentioned above.

6)  Buildings 15 have been constructed east of PTH 5 16.

Figure 8.21: Carberry in 2000

Figure 8.21: Carberry in 2000

Figure 8.21

Vertical colour air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:7,600 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 10; Range 14 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Carberry


8.22: Virden

Virden (population 3,010 in 2006) is yet another town where the road pattern is dictated by the railway. The town is located west of the Assiniboine River 1 with Assiniboine tributaries Scallion Creek 2, Bosshill Creek 3, and Gopher Creek 4 flowing through or near it.

In shape, it is similar to Hartney. The CP line runs northwest/southeast through the centre of town 5, and roads parallel to it and at right angles to it occupy most of section 22, township 10, range 26 WI outlined on the overlay. Elevators are located along the line 6 that splits in the northwest 7. A long abandoned line enters the town from the south 8.

Roads are also prominent. The Trans-Canada Highway bypasses Virden to the north 9. Northeast of Virden it is a divided highway 10 with service roads parallel to it 11. PR 259 12 crosses the area to the north with an unusual—for southern Manitoba—hairpin bend where it climbs out of the Assiniboine Valley 13. PR 257 is located west of town 14.

Various elements of Virden’s infrastructure can be identified: a centrally located park 15, a racetrack 16 and arena 17, a cemetery 18, and a drive-in cinema 19.[i] To the north are rather primitive runways 20 with associated buildings 21.

Virden is Manitoba’s oil capital,[ii] and a few small oilfields are located in the area. Scattered over much of the photo are light-toned patches 22 with light-toned lines 23 connecting them. These are wellheads with “grasshopper” like pumps connected by underground pipes carrying oil to storage areas.

Figure 8.22: Virden

Figure 8.22: Virden

Figure 8.22

Vertical air photograph: A20470-50

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,000 (approx.)

Date: May 21, 1968

Location: Township 10; Range 26 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

Notes

[i] During the 1960s and 1970s virtually every small settlement in Manitoba had a drive-in cinema located near its fringe.

[ii] For details see Young, H. R. “Mining and Extractive Industries in Manitoba” in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt and C. Stadel. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, 1996, 237-250.



8.23: La Salle

La Salle, a small hamlet south of Winnipeg, is another example of a community with a road system that was originally determined by the direction of the railway line. The south-southwest/north-northeast trending CP line 1 that crosses the east flowing La Salle River 2 north of “town” was constructed in 1882. Roads in the older part of the hamlet are parallel 3 to, or at right angles 4 to, the railway line. One of the parallel roads continues out of town to the south and north into Winnipeg as PR 330 5. La Salle is now a bedroom community for Winnipeg, and expansion beyond the older part of town takes the form of crescents 6 and bays 7 both south and north of the river. One elevator 8 and several brightly coloured buildings 9 are located along the railway line. The large blue-roofed building 10 in the west is probably an administration building. In the south is a football field 11 and baseball diamonds 12. The nearby long, narrow building 13 with a nearby outdoor hockey rink is probably a school.

During the 1997 flood of the Red River Plain there was fear that floodwater would enter Winnipeg by avoiding the Red River Floodway and flowing into the La Salle River. The Brunkild dike was built westward across the Red River Plain south of La Salle to prevent this occurrence. The dike held back water, flooding areas to the south of it, but preventing flooding in the La Salle area.

Figure 8.23: La Salle

Figure 8.23: La Salle

Figure 8.23

Vertical colour air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 2 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/1 Sundown


8.24: Woodlands

Woodlands in the Interlake Region northwest of Winnipeg is another settlement with a road pattern dictated by the railway line. The CN line used to run southeast/northwest in this area. It no longer exists, but indication of its former route can be seen 1. A wide road 2 runs parallel to it in the northeast and other roads are parallel, and at right angles, to the railway and the road. PTH 6 3 running out of Winnipeg via the Interlake to northern Manitoba takes a slight bend 4 around what was a railway siding (the road came after the railway). Four large buildings exist in this small community; the largest 5 is probably a school. A T-shaped building in the centre 6 is probably a hospital or a senior citizens home, and in the northwest a long narrow building 7 probably houses a curling rink.

Figure 8.24: Woodlands

Figure 8.24: Woodlands

Figure 8.24

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:7,000 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 4; Range 2WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/4 Warren


8.25: Eden

The hamlet of Eden is located on flat, fertile agricultural land east of the Riding Mountain Escarpment. Eden Creek 1 flows from the escarpment through the settlement on its way to joining the Whitemud River (off the photo). The CP line 2 runs west of Eden with three grain elevators 3 on a siding. PTH 5 is west of the railway line 4, parallel to it in the south then veering away from it in the north. With the exception of one road parallel to the railway line 5, roads in Eden harmonize with the DLS system trending east/west and north/south. One of the north/south roads 6, the main street of Eden, is slightly wider than the others.

The large scale of the photo permits identification of some buildings: one larger building on the main street is probably a store 7, in the south is a school 8 with a playing field next to it 9, and near to it is a long narrow building 10, the curling rink.

Most of the land surrounding Eden has been cleared for agriculture. Field patterns 11 indicate that the photo was taken in late summer/early fall after grain crops had been cut. A field in the northwest 12 is dark with dark lines following a similar pattern to the field to the east 13. This is a result of stubble burning that was—and to some extent still is—practised in the fall to remove stubble from fields.

Figure 8.25: Eden

Figure 8.25: Eden

Figure 8.25

Vertical air photograph: A18658-129

Flight height: 11,200 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:16,200 (approx.)

Date: September 20, 1964

Location: Township 16; Range 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/6 Arden


8.26: Haywood

Haywood is located on the Lake Agassiz plain between the CP line to the south 1 and PTH 2 to the north 2. Within the settlement the streets form a grid in harmony with the DLS system. The large scale of the photo permits the identification of an elevator 3 with several rail cars beside it 4.

Most of the land has been cleared for agriculture, but still several areas of trees remain 5. Farms are widely distributed 6 with about one per section.

Figure 8.26: Haywood

Figure 8.26: Haywood

Figure 8.26

Vertical air photograph: A16591-135

Flight height: 9,010 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.34 mm

Scale: 1:16,000 (approx.)

Date: July 2, 1959

Location: Township 8; Range 6 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/9 St. Claude


8.27: Haywood in 2000

Little has changed in Haywood since the photo in figure 8.26 was obtained. However, a few minor changes can be observed:

1)  The elevator (3 on figure 8.26) no longer exists 1.

2)  Some houses have been added in the southeast 2.

3)  A line of trees in the north has been added 3.

4)  Some trees have been removed in the north 4, and a T-shaped building (possibly a poultry barn) has been added 5.

5)  Buildings have been constructed west of the most northerly road in the community 6.

Figure 8.27: Haywood in 2000

Figure 8.27: Haywood in 2000

Figure 8.27

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:       lens focal length:

Scale: 16,000 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 6 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/9 St. Claude


8.28: St. Leon

St. Leon is located on the northeast edge of Pembina Mountain in south-central Manitoba. It is the first settlement shown in this chapter that is not directly affected by a railway line. This small French-Canadian settlement has its main street 1 along a north/south section line. Short roads run east/west from that 2. Although the area is dominated by the DLS system, thin strips of land run back from the main street both east 3 and west 4. The spired church can just be identified on the basis of its shadow 5. Writing in 1978 Tyman[i] stated, “St. Leon is still very much a French community. It was settled by persons from the Province of Quebec, who by keeping to themselves have managed to preserve much of the old way of life though they are almost surrounded by W.A.S.P.S…. The village itself has a population of less than 100 persons, the greater bulk of whom depend for their livelihood on a co-operative—which in making it possible for the people to work together, has enhanced both the economic and linguistic future of the community.” PTH 23 6 crosses the area in the north.

Some patches of trees remain 7 in this agricultural area that is sparsely populated with only one or two farms per section 8. Although the land is flat there is evidence of soil erosion in some locations 9.

Figure 8.28: St. Leon

Figure 8.28: St. Leon

Figure 8.28

Vertical air photograph: A16183-64

Flight height: 10,050 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: July 22, 1958

Location: Township 5; Range R9WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/7 Somerset

Notes

[i] Tyman, J. and D. Where on Earth: Mid Latitude Grasslands  (Library Edition). Brisbane: Atham Educational, 1978, 12.


 


8.29: St. Leon in 2000

Although St. Leon is a very small community, there has been a considerable increase in buildings suggesting an increase in population since the photo in 8.28 was obtained. Also some things can be better seen on this large-scale colour photo than on the older panchromatic photo.

1)  The widening of the main road along a section line is more evident 1.

2)  A north/south road has been constructed east of the main road 2 with a spur 3 along the north edge of the lake.

3)  Several new buildings—some houses 4 and some larger buildings 5—have been added between the two north/south roads.

4)  Buildings have been added west of the main road—some houses 6 and two large buildings 7; the one in the north may be a school.

5)  Fields have been amalgamated both west 7 and east 8 of the main road.

St. Leon is located in a flat area ideally suited to the development of wind energy. As a result a 99MW installation (due for completion in 2006) has been erected with St. Leon in the centre. This is perhaps the first wind project in Canada with a village located in the centre. The St. Leon project is the first wind, and first independent, power project in Manitoba

Figure 8.29: St. Leon in 2000

Figure 8.29: St. Leon in 2000

Figure 8.29

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:7,600 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 5; Range 9 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/7 Somerset


8.30: Rapid City

Rapid City is located on the south side of the Little Saskatchewan River 1 valley in an area of classic ground moraine topography. Ironically it is a settlement with a road pattern uninfluenced by a railway line; its street pattern harmonizes with the DLS grid. When it was established it was hoped that the trans-continental Canadian Pacific Railway line would pass through this area, but the line was routed through Brandon further south, and Rapid City never became the city it was expected to be: its population has never exceeded 500 (467 in 1961, 408 in 1996, 424 in 2001, and 416 in 2006).

Its location in the Little Saskatchewan Valley would seem to lend itself to something more exciting than a rectangular grid, but not so: the standard grid of north/south and east/west roads is set down on the valley side with no acknowledgement of the topography. Near the centre, two or three roads are wider creating a central business block 2.

Two abandoned railway lines (3 and 4) run close to town, the Canadian Pacific in the south 4 following a peculiar route. PTH 24 5 passes through the town, and PR 270 6 enters from the south. The light-toned linear feature in the south 7 is a buried gas pipeline.

The Little Saskatchewan River has been dammed to produce a reservoir 8, and the town’s sewage lagoons 9 and cemetery 10 can be identified. It is characteristic of small prairie settlements that both the cemetery and sewage lagoons are located well outside the town limits.

Figure 8.30: Rapid City

Figure 8.30: Rapid City

Figure 8.30

Vertical air photograph: A20471-238

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,000 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Townships 12 and 13; Ranges 19 and 20 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62/K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

 


8.31: Wawanesa

The location of the Village of Wawanesa in a meander loop of the Souris River 1 would seem to lend itself to something other than the standard grid pattern. Indeed some modifications do occur but the grid still dominates. The Canadian National line 2 follows a curved route along the meander neck, then crosses the Souris 3 and runs up the side of the incised valley. The route tries to avoid steep slopes, but still the construction of the line through Wawanesa was more difficult than most construction on the prairies and the line did not function for long: built in 1889, it was abandoned by 1984. Within Wawanesa are several sidings on one of which an elevator 4 is situated. An offshoot from PTH 2 5 passes through Wawanesa roughly parallel to the railway line, crossing the Souris just east of the railway bridge 6. During the spring flood of 1976 both bridges were washed out, and the railway bridge—no longer used by that date—was never replaced. The only way into town at the time was from the north by PR 340 7. Another road that defies the grid runs along the steep north bank of the Souris 8. However, this road is no longer used as part of it has disappeared due to slumping 9 and the rest is unsafe.

Other roads in the village run east/west or north/south, the main street 10 being slightly wider. Wawanesa’s chief claim to fame is that it is the headquarters of the Wawanesa Insurance Company. Established in 1896 to offer farmers protection against fire often caused by steam-driven thrashing machines, it has grown to be a worldwide organization. Officially the headquarters are still in Wawanesa, located in the large building at the south end of Main Street 11. Despite that, the village has never been large. Its population of 516 in 2001 increased to 535 in 2006 probably because it functions as a dormitory community for Brandon, 50 km (31 miles) to the north. An old-style school is located in the east 12 and a racetrack in the west 13. A weir 14 located on the Souris raises the water level for water supply, and poorly located sewage lagoons 15 can be seen above the valley wall.

Other linear features are, in the north, the Canadian Pacific line 16 and in the extreme south, PTH 2 17 that bypasses Wawanesa. The light-toned linear feature 18 crossing the southwest corner is a buried oil pipeline.

Figure 8.31: Wawanesa

Figure 8.31: Wawanesa

Figure 8.31

Vertical air photograph: A23692-6

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: May 12, 1974

Location: Township 7; Range 17 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


8.32: Wawanesa in 2000

This large-scale colour air photo makes it possible to deduce some aspects of the community better than was possible with the black and white image of figure 8.31 as well as changes that have occurred since 1974.

1)  The railway line has almost completely disappeared; only faint indications of its former location can be seen 1. However, the railway bridge still exists 2.

2)  The route followed by PR 340 through the village 3 almost parallels the former railway line.

3)  The wide main street can be clearly seen 4. Several large buildings can be seen on either side of the street 5, one of which 6 is the headquarters of the Wawanesa Insurance Company.

4)  A group of buildings near the apex of the meander loop 7 was visible on figure 8.31, but it is much clearer here. It is probably a school.

5)  Further east are two new large buildings 8; these are probably a hockey rink and a curling rink.

6)  The racetrack is more obvious on this photo 9; baseball diamonds 10 are located inside the track.

7)  A small outdoor pool is located in the north 11.

8)  The sewage lagoons 12 in the northwest do not seem to be used now.

9)  The contrast between a swathed field with well-defined rows of straw 13 and a field that has been combined, that has indistinct rows 14, is well illustrated on this photo.

Figure 8.32: Wawanesa in 2000

Figure 8.32: Wawanesa in 2000

Figure 8.32

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: lens focal length:

Date: 2000

Scale: 1:7,000 (approx.)

Location: Township 7: Range17 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


8.33: Erickson

The Town of Erickson (population 456 in 2006) is located in an area of ground moraine topography with many lake-filled depressions, one of which is Leda Lake 1. The CN line 2 on which two elevators are located 3 runs along the east shore of Leda Lake. Erickson is sandwiched between the line and PTH 10 4 to the east. One road in town is parallel to the railway 5, but the rest follow the DLS grid. An unusual straight diagonal road 6, which bears no relation to the railway line or the DLS system, is located in the east. It is possibly the route that PTH 10 used to follow.

Many of the usual items of infrastructure can be seen on this large-scale photo. The main east/west road is wider 7 with large commercial and organizational buildings along it. Cars are parked obliquely on this wide street 8. The large round-topped building south of the main street is a rink 9 with an old-style school near it 10.

A newer-style school can be seen in the northeast 11. As is usual in small prairie towns, the sewage lagoons 12 are located outside the built-up area, in this case to the south.

Figure 8.33: Erickson

Figure 8.33:  Erickson

 

Figure 8.33

Vertical air photograph: A18658-157

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:14,700 (approx.)

Date: September 20, 1964

Location: Townships 17 and 18; Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/12 Wasagaming 

 


8.34: Erickson in 2000

This large-scale colour photo of Erickson reveals several additions and changes to the town since the photo in 8.33 was obtained (1964).

1)  The route of the CN railway line to the west of town can still be seen 1 although it is no longer in use. The elevators visible on figure 8.33 have gone.

2)  The wide main road 2 is more easily picked out on this photo as are large buildings 3—probably stores—on either side of it.

3)  The long narrow building on figure 8.33 (no. 9—identified as a rink) has disappeared and is replaced by a wider building 4 with a car park 5 where the old school used to be (number 10 on figure 8.33).

4)  South of town is a new T-shaped building 6, a hospital.

5)  The school in the north (number 11 on figure 8.33) has had a new wing added to it 7.

6)  Two large buildings have been added in the north 8.

7)  Further north is a racetrack 9 which appears disused; it has an outdoor hockey rink beside it 10.

8)  A new landing strip 11 is located east of PTH 10 12 on which three vehicles can be seen 13.

Figure 8.34: Erickson in 2000

Figure 8.34: Erickson in 2000

Figure 8.34

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:   lens focal length:

Scale: 1:6,500 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 18; Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/12 Wasagaming.


8.35: Birtle

Birtle is an example of a town in which an antecedent business centre was soundly established before the railroad arrived. The railroad, therefore, had to remain on the outskirts while at the same time the original business area managed to remain dominant.[i] On the photograph, the CP line can be seen north of town 1. Two elevators 2 can be seen on it, with just to the south a cluster of buildings 3 which probably house some rail-related industry.

The town is beautifully situated in the valley of Birdtail Creek 4 offering an opportunity for a more enterprising road pattern than the standard grid. However, the opportunity was missed, and the grid is set down on the south side of the valley ignoring its existence. PTH 83 5 runs north/south through the area and PTH 42 6 east/west, the two amalgamating to pass through the centre of Birtle, forming the main street 7 along which most of the town’s commercial establishments are located.

Given the large scale of the photo several items of the town’s infrastructure are identifiable: two schools 8, a hospital 9, a racetrack 10, a cemetery 11, a sewage lagoon 12, and a primitive runway 13. The Birdtail Creek has been dammed 14, creating a lake 15 with recreational features around it. A long building on the north shore 16 is probably a motel.

In recent years Birtle’s population has dropped from a high of 887 in 1981 to 715 in 2001. In an effort to reverse the trend, the town placed advertisements in eastern Canadian newspapers enticing people to relocate here by emphasizing the very low cost of housing, the beautiful setting, and the relaxed atmosphere of rural living. It does not seem to have been successful because the population continued to drop, to 662 in 2006.

Figure 8.35: Birtle

Figure 8.35: Birtle

Figure 8.35

Vertical air photograph: A20365-229

Flight height: 9,820 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,000 (approx.)

Date May 13, 1969

Location: Township 17; Ranges 26 and 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62 K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/6 Birtle

Notes

[i] Warkentin, J. and Ruggles, R. I. Historical Atlas of Manitoba. Winnipeg: Manitoba Historical Society, 1970, 360.


 


8.36: Shoal Lake

The Town of Shoal Lake (population 680 in 2006) is located at the north end of Shoal Lake 1 in an area of ground moraine topography. Although the CP line 2 runs through the town, the road pattern is principally a grid in harmony with the DLS system in contrast to Strathclair (figures 8.11 and 8.12) in a very similar situation about 8 miles (13 km) to the east. In the town two roads 3 run parallel to the line—one to the north, one to the south—with railway-oriented buildings between them. Most of the road grid is south of the line with a wider north/south main street 4. This is part of the north/south PTH 21 5. Highway 16 6—the Yellowhead Route—bypasses Shoal Lake to the north.

At the small scale of the photo, individual items are not easily identified. However, two large buildings 7 may be schools; a large building in the northwest 8 is probably the rink; a racetrack is obvious in the south 9; and a cemetery is located north of town 10.

Figure 8.36: Shoal Lake

Figure 8.36: Shoal Lake

Figure 8.36

Vertical air photograph: A20471-168

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:39,600 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Townships 16 and 17; Range 23 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/7 Shoal Lake


8.37: Ste Rose du Lac

The town of Ste Rose du Lac (population 995 in 2006) is located on flat land—part of the Lake Agassiz plain—south of Dauphin Lake beside Turtle River 1, which flows north to the lake. The river exhibits a prominent cutoff 2 with others less definite. Ste Rose is an example of a town where the main route ways bypass the built-up area. The CN line 3 runs north of town with two elevators 4 on a siding and has no effect on the town’s road plan which is the standard grid set into the DLS system. Section lines, some occupied by roads 5, are obvious, and a widening of one of them forms the main street in Ste Rose 6. Other roads are parallel and at right angles to this. PTH 5 7 bypasses the town on the south.

The large scale of the photo enables the identification of several individual items in the town: in the southeast is a hospital 8; near it is a large building, probably a school 9; a long narrow building in the north is probably a rink 10; and a racetrack 11 and some primitive runways 12 can also be identified. Ste Rose’s main “claim to fame” is a grotto—a replica of the famous grotto at Lourdes-- completed in 1958 13.

Figure 8.37: Ste Rose du Lac

Figure 8.37: Ste Rose du Lac

Figure 8.37

Vertical air photograph: A17717-25

Flight height: 9,320 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.15 mm

Scale: 1:17,000 (approx.)

Date: July 12, 1962

Location: Township 24; Range 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000: 620 Dauphin Lake

                    1:50,000: 620/4 Ochre River


8.38: Russell

Russell (population 1,428 in 2006) is located in an area of ground moraine topography with many sloughs, some of which have dried up 1. It is situated between the Assiniboine Valley to the west and the western end of Riding Mountain National Park to the east. Conjuring Creek 2, an east bank tributary of the Assiniboine, flows westward across the northern part of the photo.

Russell is another example of a settlement with transport routes skirting it and not influencing its road plan. The CP line 3 runs west of town with two elevators 4 on a siding. North of the town it intersects the CN line 5 which cuts through the northeastern part of the settlement. The CN line has a turning siding 6 and an elevator 7 located just inside the builtup area. PTH 45 and PTH 83 8 skirt the southern edge with 83 leading north 9 and 16 10—The Yellowhead Route—leading west. Only one road 11 that parallels the CN line is influenced by these route ways. All other roads follow the standard grid pattern which harmonizes with the surrounding DLS system.

The main street runs north/south 12 with several large buildings, including the arena 13, located along it. Other items of infrastructure that can be identified are: a racetrack 14 with two schools 15 located north of it; a water tower 16—identified by its shadow; and a trailer park 17. North of town are several long buildings characteristic of a poultry farm 18, and, as usual, the cemetery is located well out of town to the north 19.

Note the information in the bottom left-hand corner of the photo. Air photo A19493-116 is the first photo in line 28 flown from west to east and including photos A19493-116 to 145. The line was flown on May 11, 1969 at an altitude of 9,820 feet above sea level, using a camera with a focal length of 152.47 mm.

Russell is a prosperous rural centre that has gained importance from its location on the increasingly popular Yellowhead Route across western Canada. It also has the advantage of being less than 20 miles (32 km) from Asessippi Provincial Park on Lake of the Prairies, a popular summer holiday location for boating and fishing, and the location of a relatively new ski resort in the Shell Valley.

Figure 8.38: Russell

Figure 8.38: Russell

Figure 8.38

Vertical air photograph: A19493-116

Flight height: 9,820 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.47 mm

Scale: 1:15,600 (approx.)

Date: May 11, 1969

Location: Townships 20 and 21; Range 28 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis


8.39: The Location of Souris

The next two photographs (figures 8.39 and 8.40) included here show the usefulness of small-scale photos for showing the general location of a settlement and of large-scale photos for showing internal detail.

Souris is another town which had an antecedent business area before the arrival of the railway line. In figure 8.39, Souris 1 can be seen located mainly north of a bend on the Souris River 2, although there is some residential and institutional development to the south 3. Plum Creek 4 joins the eastward-flowing Souris from the west and Elgin Creek 5 joins from the south. The CP lines from the north 6 and east 7 sweep through the northwest of the town; PTH 2 8 runs east/west through town, and PTH 22 9 enters from the south bending slightly to the east to avoid the Souris River. In town the road pattern is mainly a grid harmonizing with the DLS system. Souris airfield 11—the usual triangular shape—is located northeast of town and the cemetery, to the north 12.

Figure 8.39: The Location of Souris

Figure 8.39: The Location of Souris

Figure 8.39

Vertical air photograph: A20471-41

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:39,800 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Townships 7 and 8; Range 21 WI

Map sheets:1:250,000 62F Virden

                   1:50,000 62F/9 Souris


8.40: Souris

Figure 8.40 is at a much larger scale than figure 8.39 enabling a more detailed interpretation. The Souris River 1 occupies a steep-sided mainly wooded valley 2 in this area. Plum Creek 3 and Elgin Creek 4 can be more clearly seen than in figure 8.39. PTH 22 5 is the main connection between north and south town, but just below the bridge where it crosses the Souris 6 is a faint line 7; this is a foot bridge advertised in brochures as Souris’s swinging bridge. It was taken out by ice during the 1976 flood but has since been rebuilt. Further downstream is another faint line crossing the river 8; this is a weir to raise the river level for water supply. A wooded park is located around the junction of Plum Creek and the Souris River 9.

The main street in Souris (population 1,772 in 2006—up from 1,683 in 2001) is a wide north-south section line 10 along which several large buildings can be seen. A large building to the west 11 is the town’s arena, and in the east is a large school 12. Although the road plan is mainly a grid, exceptions occur. An attractively located string of stores is located on a curved street at the top of a bluff on the north side of the Souris 13, and two roads south of the river are curved 14.

Along the railway line north of town are elevators 15, and rows of railcars can be seen on sidings 16. Another large elevator 17 can be seen on a spur line east of Plum Creek. The town’s dump—strangely termed the “nuisance grounds” in southern Manitoba—is unwisely located on the north bank of the Souris 18. Further east is a drive-in cinema 19; the projection booth, screen and parking lines can all be identified. In the same general area are two large gravel pits 20, well-known in southern Manitoba for the agates found in them and in the academic community for the fact that gravels in them have a greater mineralogical affinity with rocks to the west rather than the north, suggesting that they were deposited by ice flowing from the west.

Figure 8.40: Souris

Figure 8.40: Souris

Figure 8.40

Vertical air photograph: A20811-78

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 7 and 8; Range 21 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/9 Souris


8.41: The Location of Minnedosa

The Town of Minnedosa 1 has a beautiful location in the Little Saskatchewan Valley 2 that can be seen cutting through the northwestern part of the photograph. The steep-sided, flat-floored valley is incised into an area of classic ground moraine topography—pothole country—with numerous sloughs, very dark-toned on the photo 3. The principal transport routes are the CP line 4 which runs through town and then diagonally up the north side of the valley and PTH 10 5 which bypasses Minnedosa to the west. Highway 16 6—the Yellowhead Route—runs west; where it intersects highway 10, the latter is a divided highway 7; PR 262 8 runs north/south along the east shore of Minnedosa Lake. The CN line 10 is located in the northeast with the small community of Bethany located on it 11.

Land shown on this photo lies within townships 14 and 15, the boundary between the two 12 being the fourth correction line. The correction of about 0.75 mile (1.2 km) 13 can be seen by tracing north/south section lines in the top tier of township 14 north to the township line.

Figure 8.41: The Location of Minnedosa

Figure 8.41: The Location of Minnedosa

Figures 8.41

Vertical air photograph: A21748-64

Flight height: 23,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length 3.37 inches

Scale: 1:83,400

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Ranges 17, 18 and 19 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/4 Moorepark

                                   62J/5 Clanwilliam


8.42: Minnedosa

The large scale of this photo shows the detail of Minnedosa’s location in the Little Saskatchewan Valley. Tanner’s Crossing—Minnedosa’s original name—was located here in the general area of the present road 1 and railway crossings 2. It is noticeable that settlement avoids the valley floor just to the northeast where numerous old river channels 3 can be seen in an area now used as a park. Below the crossing two meanders have been artificially cut off 4.

The railway line runs through the town without influencing its street plan, which is the standard grid pattern harmonizing with the DLS system both north and south of the river. West of town are many railway sidings 5 on which a round house 6[i] and elevators 7 can be identified. A train that is about 0.9 miles (1.4 km) long can be seen 8 extending northwest and southeast of the river bridge. The town’s main street runs north/south across the river 9 and under the railway line. Cars—small dark dots—can be seen parked obliquely on this street on both sides of the river 10. Prior to the building of the Minnedosa bypass on PTH 10, the main route from Brandon to Riding Mountain National Park ran along this road and out of town to the north. Several large buildings are located along this street, one just to the west probably being the arena 11. Another large building southwest of that 12 is probably a school. Both the racetrack 13 and the cemetery 14, characteristically located on the edge of town, are easily identified.

The Little Saskatchewan River has been dammed to create Minnedosa Lake 15. The dam 16, which has been in existence since 1912, can be seen with a spillway at the eastern end 17. Collapse of the dam in 1950 resulted in severe flooding in town. Its only function now is to maintain Minnedosa Lake for recreational purposes. Cottage development had started along the west shore in 1964 18 and is more extensive now. The lake is used for water sports and was an excellent venue for rowing and canoeing in the Canada Games in 1997 and the rowing events for the 1999 Pan-Am games based in Winnipeg.

Minnedosa is a small rural centre which peaked in population in 1976 (2718) and has declined since—1996 (2443), 2001 (2426). However, it experienced a slight increase to 2, 474 in 2006, possibly benefiting from its proximity to Brandon.

Figure 8.42: Minnedosa

Figure 8.42: Minnedosa

Figure 8.42

Vertical air photograph: A18625-84

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,500

Date: 1964

Location: Township 15; Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/4 Moorepark

                                   62J/5 Clanwilliam

Notes

[i] A roundhouse is the building where the day-to-day maintenance of locomotives would take place. This included regular greasing and oiling, cleaning of the alkali from the boiler tubes, and cleaning of the flues. Naturally, the locomotives would be very large and difficult to move around, and the amount of equipment required to maintain them was tremendous. As well, unlike the modern diesel locomotives of today, a steam locomotive was designed to go forward and seldom backed up. To solve this, a turntable mechanism was utilized to rotate the locomotives to various specialized workshops in the roundhouse (www.3valleyroundhouse.com/).



8.43: The Location of Carman

The Town of Carman is located on the Lake Agassiz plain with the Boyne River 1 flowing through it. The actual course of the river can be seen in some locations 2, but always its general location can be determined by the wooded land surrounding it 3. The Boyne is susceptible to flooding, and Carman was one of the first settlements mapped under the National Flood Damage Reduction Program. Since the photo was taken, the town has been bypassed by a floodway to the north.

Carman is another town with a street plain that has not been influenced by the railway line. Warkentin and Ruggles describe its development as follows : “The central business district is concentrated on Main [4] and Second Streets [5], and First Avenue [6]. Carman has been protected from the “railroad business street” model because of some special circumstances of railroad building in the 19th century. A settlement existed on the Boyne River before the railroads came to Manitoba. Then, in 1882, a charter was granted to the Manitoba and Southwestern Railway Company to build 50 miles of track in the direction of what is now Carman. At the end of the 50 miles the track was still six miles from present Carman, and a “tug of war” developed, with the railroad urging the merchants to move to rail head (at Barnsley [6 miles/9.6 km to the north]) and the merchants hoping to bring the railroad to Carman. Neither side gave in for six years, until the Northern Pacific Railway line was built westward from Morris to a point eight miles south of Carman and there was imminent danger that it might build a branch to Carman. Thereupon the Manitoba and Southwestern Railway, by that time a branch of the CPR, was extended south from Barnsley to Carman, but the central business area had in the meantime had time to develop and the village and therefore the railroad stayed on the north side of the built up area. Later it bypassed Carman in a great loop to the westward [7]. Some business places were established near the railroad yards, but that district remained a subsidiary centre.”[i]

In addition the CN line 8 passes east/west through Carman producing a railway zone, with elevators 9 and railway-associated activities separating the north and south of town. PTH 2 10 passes south of most of Carman with a limited amount of residential development to the south 11. Given the small scale of the photo not a lot of detail can be identified, but three of the standard items of small Manitoba towns are seen: a race course 12 west of town; a golf course 13 east of the race course, and a sewage lagoon to the northeast of town 14.

Carman is close enough to Winnipeg to be influenced by the capital, resulting in an increase in population in recent years—2704 in 1996, 2831 in 2001, 2,880 in 2006. It has the dubious distinction of having recorded, in July 2007, the highest humidex reading—53°C—ever recorded in Canada.

Figure 8.43: The Location of Carman

Figure 8.43: The Location of Carman

 

Figure 8.43

Vertical air photograph: A21150-20

Flight height: 18,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.63 mm

Scale: 1:37,300 (approx.)

Date: August 7, 1969

Location: Township 6; Ranges 4 and 5 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62G/8 Miami

 

Notes

[i] Warkentin and Ruggles. op. cit., 1970, 372.



8.44: The Location of Neepawa

Two photographs (figures 8.44 and 8.45) are used to show the town of Neepawa: 8.44 is a small-scale, high-level photo that shows the general setting, and 8.45 is a larger scale photo that shows some detail of the town’s infrastructure.

The Town of Neepawa (population 3,298 in 2006) 1 is located near the northeastern edge of the Assiniboine Delta. The wooded areas 2 and wooded string-like valleys 3 in the east are along the delta edge and in the north are poorly defined Lake Agassiz strandlines 4. The Whitemud River 5 runs east of Neepawa. It has been dammed 6 to produce Lake Irwin 7, the town’s water supply source. Neepawa Creek 8 flows from the west through Park Lake 9 to join the Whitemud.

The area shown lies in townships 14 and 15 with the fourth correction line between them. The amount of the correction—about 3,500 feet (1066 m)—can be seen by tracing the range line between ranges 15 and 16 WI 10 north to the correction line where it jogs to the west 11.

The main transport routes all avoid downtown Neepawa. The CN line 12, which is best seen in the south, passes to the west of town, and the CP line 13 skirts the north. Neepawa is unusual in that the railway line nearest to it runs north/south and outside the main built-up area. Highway 16—the Yellowhead Route 14—runs through the southern edge of town; and PTH 5 15 enters from the south, follows Highway 16 west for a mile, then branches off to the north well to the west of town 16. Also seen are a western branch line of the CN 17 with a Hutterite Colony on it 18, the town’s airfield 19 with the characteristic triangular shape, and the sewage lagoons 20.

Figure 8.44: The Location of Neepawa

Figure 8.44: The Location of Neepawa

Figure 8.44

Vertical air photograph: A21748-61

Flight height: 23,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.37 inches

Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 14 and 15, Ranges 14, 15, and 16 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa

                                   62J/4 Moore Park

                                   62G/13 Brandon

                                   62G/14Carberry


8.45: Neepawa

The larger scale of this photo permits identification of more detail about the features noted in 8.44. The Whitemud River 1 east of town is joined by Stoney Creek 2 that flows through Park Lake 3. The CN line 4 west of town has sidings 5 on which railroad cars can be seen 6. A string of railroad cars 7 and an elevator 8 can be seen on the CP line 9 that sweeps through the north of town. A siding, now disused 10, joins the CP and CN lines. PTH 5 11 Highway 16 12 skirt the main part of town, but some residential development 13 exists south of #16.

Some individual items can be identified: in the northeast a hospital 18, with a school 19 nearby; in the east a curling rink or arena 20; in the south, a race track with a baseball diamond inside it 21; and in the northeast a sewage lagoon 22 with a golf course near it 23.

The street pattern is the standard grid of straight roads harmonizing with the DLS system. The main “downtown” zone can be seen as a light-toned area 14 encompassing two north/south roads—Mountain Avenue 15 and First Avenue 16—and four east/west streets. Mountain Avenue and one of the east/west streets—Hamilton Street—17 are wider than the others.

Figure 8.45: Neepawa

Figure 8.45: Neepawa

Figure 8.45

Vertical air photograph: A18622-111

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1: 17,100

Date: September 15, 1964

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Range 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa


8.46: Neepawa in 2000

This large-scale colour photo reveals some things better than the black and white image on figure 8.45 as well as several changes since that photo was obtained (1964).

1)  Both railway lines—the east/west CP line in the north 1 and the north/south CN line in the west 2 still exist, but the elevator (number 8 in 8.45) has gone. However, two big new elevators are located on the CN line 3.

2)  The Central Business District 4 is easily identified because it is a different colour than the surrounding residential areas. The older residential areas are dark green 5 due to the abundance of trees.

3)  A large light-coloured building just west of the Central Business District 6 is probably a school. Another school located in the north 7 has a running track 8 beside it.

4)  West of the running track is a light-coloured building which probably houses both a hockey rink and curling lanes 9. This building is shown on figure 8.45 but was not identified because its dark tone blended in with its surroundings.

5)  A poultry farm with long, narrow sheds 10 is located in the southwest.

6)  The sewage lagoons are located in the northeast 11; two of them are green 12, presumably due to algae.

7)  Several buildings have been constructed west of PTH 5 13.

8)  The residential areas of Neepawa have not expanded a lot, but there has been some infilling of spaces in the south 14, north 15, and northeast 16. In the last area there has also been some expansion to the northeast. It is noticeable that although in virtually all of Neepawa the road pattern harmonizes with the DLS system, in this northeastern residential area one road is parallel to the CN railway line (it is named Railway Avenue 17) with other roads at right angles to it 18.

Figure 8.46: Neepawa in 2000

Figure 8.46: Neepawa in 2000

Figure 8.46

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:13,800 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Range 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa


8.47: Beausejour

The Town of Beausejour (population 2,823 in 2006) is located in eastern Manitoba, about 45 km northeast of Winnipeg. Although the CP line 1 runs east-southeast/west-northwest through town, roads are oriented in harmony with the DLS system. The main commercial street, Park Avenue 2, is located along the fourth baseline of the DLS between townships 12 and 13. North/south roads on either side of the baseline are not continuous across it; and the jog at Park Avenue 3 is a chance result rather than a systematic jog as on either side of a correction line. The roads along section lines in the west 4 and to the east of town 5 are exceptions. Most of the town, especially in the north, has a grid pattern, although some roads close to the railway line 6 are parallel to it and some bays 7, and circles 8 are seen in the south. The latter are newer developments. A small trailer park is seen in the northwest 9. Many large buildings 10, probably stores, are located along Park Avenue. Two elevators 11 are located on the railway line.

Various individual items of infrastructure can be identified:

a)  A school 12 can be seen, with a racetrack to the east 13.

b)  A large building 14 just north of the elevators, may be an arena.

c)  A Y-shaped building 15 south of the railway line, near the elevators, may be a hospital.

d)  Another large building in the south 16 may be a hotel/motel (Beausejour is the gateway to “cottage country” to the east).

e)  In the southeast is a large sports complex which includes: four baseball diamonds 17; two large buildings 18 which may house curling rinks (Beausejour has played host to Zone and Provincial Bonspiels); a blue area 19 which may be an outdoor pool; and in the extreme southeast a long oval track 20, which is a power toboggan track (Beausejour hosts the Annual Canadian Power Toboggan Championship Races). A grandstand is located to the west 21.

f)  North of the recreational area is a shopping centre 22 with numerous parked cars 23 outside it. Light-toned areas in the west 24 are disused quarries; one of them has filled with water 25. A jetty 26 projecting into it suggests that it has recreational use.

Figure 8.47: Beausejour

Figure 8.47: Beausejour

Figure 8.47

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:11,000 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Townships 12 and 13; Range 7 E

Map sheets: 1:240,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/2 Selkirk


8.48: Landmark

Landmark is a small settlement located on the Red River Plain 25 km southeast of Winnipeg. It is a relatively new settlement dating from the 1920s when several Mennonite families purchased land in the area. It is now largely a dormitory community for Winnipeg. Like its larger neighbour to the southeast, Steinbach, it is not located on a railway line. Despite its newness and the lack of any topographic hindrance to building, the monotonous grid prevails; only in the northeast is there one crescent 1 and one bay 2. Single-family dwellings 3 predominate mainly along the north/south trending roads. Trees have been planted around most properties 4. The main road is a widening 5 of PR 206 6 that runs along a section line. A group of large buildings 7, possibly the administrative centre, is located west of the main street. Other items of infrastructure that can be identified are: in the southeast, a sports centre 8, including six baseball diamonds 9 and a large building 10 that might house curling lanes or a hockey rink; and two schools 11. Landmark is located in an area of fertile soils, now well drained, but subject to wet conditions as indicated by dark patches west of town 12. Its main industry is a livestock and poultry feed supplier that may be located in one of the unidentified large buildings. Its proximity to Winnipeg results in an increasing population, now over 1000.

Figure 8.48: Landmark

Figure 8.48: Landmark

Figure 8.48

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:9,500 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 5 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/10 Ste Anne


8.49: Waskada

The Village of Waskada (population 199 in 2006) in southwestern Manitoba is located in an area of circular ice disintegration ridges—light-toned on the photo 1. In the section in which most of Waskada is located (5-2-25WI) the CP line 2 runs almost parallel to the east/west section lines of the DLS system, so the road grid system in Waskada harmonizes with both the railway line and the DLS system. PR 251 3 passes north/south through town and follows the section line to west 4 and east 5.

The large scale of the photo permits several details to be observed: three elevators 6 on the railway line, a school in the north 7, and a racetrack in the south 8. In this dry area of southwestern Manitoba, water supply is a problem, hence the location of a reservoir 9 south of town and numerous dugouts out of town 10, and sometimes on farms, which are few in this sparsely populated area.

Several of the usual features are located out of town: sewage lagoons to the west 11, with a buried pipe leading toward them 12; a cemetery to the east 13; and a rubbish dump 14.

Figure 8.49: Waskada

Figure 8.49: Waskada

Figure 8.49

Vertical air photograph: A20409-55

Flight height: 9,520 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: May 9, 1968

Location: Township 2, Range 25 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/2 Waskada


8.50: Miami

Miami is another settlement in which the railway line is parallel to the DLS system, so that streets in the settlement are parallel to and at right angles to both systems.

Miami is located on the western part of the Lake Agassiz Plain. A prominent strandline 1 with a gravel pit 2 excavated into it can be seen in the west as well as less distinct strandlines in the east 3. A wooded stream valley crosses the area from west to east 4, and another small stream has been channelized 5.

PTH 23 6 crosses the middle of the area and is paralleled in the east by the CN line 7 on which three elevators 8 can be seen. Most of Miami lies north of these two route ways with one wide road parallel to the railway line 9 and one at right angles 10. Several large buildings are located on these two roads;one in the northeast is probably a school 11. Settlement is sparse in this area with only one or two farms 12 per section.

Figure 8.50: Miami

Figure 8.50: Miami

Figure 8.50

Vertical air photograph: A16183-80

Flight height: 10,050 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:18,400 (approx.)

Date: July 22, 1958

Location: Township 5; Ranges 6 and 7 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


8.51: Miami in 2000

The layout of the settlement is the same as in figure 8.50, but a few additions have occurred, and some items are better seen on this large-scale colour air photo than on the black and white one in figure 8.50.

1)  Some infilling has occurred in residential areas in the northwest 1 and southeast 2.

2)  Some new houses 3 have been built north of the wide shelterbelt 4 in the north, and a new shelterbelt has been planted around them 5.

3)  A new large building can be seen in the east 6, possibly a new school.

4)  South of the railway tracks 7 and PTH 23 8 is a new racetrack 9 with a viewing stand to the west 10.

5)  Two buildings, a long narrow one 11 and a wider one 12, were in existence when figure 8.50 was obtained. They are more easily identified on this image, and a third building 13 has been added to the east.

6)  Only one of the three elevators remains, the most easterly one 14.

Figure 8.51: Miami in 2000

Figure 8.51: Miami in 2000

Figure 8.51

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale 1:5,700 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 7; Range 6 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


8.52: Deloraine

The Town of Deloraine (population 977 in 2006) is located on flat land north of Turtle Mountain with classic circular disintegration ridges 1. The southern part of the photo is in township 2 and the north in township 3 with the first correction line between them. However, the correction is so large—almost a mile 2—that north/south section lines on either side of the township line almost coincide.

As was the case with Miami, the railway line here runs parallel to the east/west section lines of the DLS system so that the street grid pattern harmonizes with both the DLS and the railway. The CP line 3 runs east/west with about two thirds of the town—mainly residential—to the south, and one third, with more commercial activity, to the north. It is noticeable that the main east/west road 4 north of the railway takes a slight bend northward around the railway sidings 5 on which three elevators 6 are located, suggesting that the railroad came first. There is a railway “zone” between that street and the one immediately south of the railway, including a wooded park-like area 7. West of town, railway spur leads off to the southwest 8 to Goodlands and ultimately to Lyleton. PTH 3 9 runs south of town and then bypasses it to the west 10.

Several of the usual features of small Manitoba towns can be identified: a school 11, rink/auditorium 12, racetrack with a small viewing stand 13, sewage lagoons 14, and cemetery 15.

There is no obvious sign of a surface water supply, but a light-toned line 16 indicates the location of a buried pipeline that brings water to Deloraine from Turtlehead Creek in Turtle Mountain to the south.

Figure 8.52: Deloraine

Figure 8.52: Deloraine

Figure 8.52

Vertical air photograph: A19904-161

Flight height: 9,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Township 3; Range 23 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden 

                    1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine


8.53: Altona

The Town of Altona is located south of Winnipeg, close to the U.S. border. It is another example of a situation in which the direction of the railway line and the lines of the DLS system almost coincide. The CP railway line 1 runs almost north/south; but with a slight bend to the west 2. This is reflected in the direction of three roads east of the line 3. Other roads in the older part of town are east/west or north/south harmonizing with the DLS system; several bays can be seen in the newer locations 4. A zone of railway-related buildings exists east 5 and west 6 of the line in the centre of the photo. A loop-shaped siding 7 encircles an industrial 8 area with circular containers in the north centre 9. East/west and north/south streets delimit a rectangular commercial area in the centre 10. PTH 30 11 bends to the east, and a second commercial area 12 is located between it and a north/south road to the west. Another commercial area is located in the northeast 13. Without ground knowledge of the town, it is difficult to identify individual commercial buildings. However, Altona’s main industry is printing (it is the home of Friesen’s printing/publishing), and some of the large buildings 14 may be associated with that industry.

Well-treed residential areas 15 surround the central commercial area. Trees are not indigenous to this area; most of the trees are probably cottonwoods grown from seed imported from Russia, the area from which the Mennonite settlers of this part of Manitoba were derived. Two parks are located in the west 16. Within the residential areas are several large buildings which may be schools 17, one of which has a running track beside it 18.

Altona is a prosperous Mennonite community with a variety of light industries. It has been increasing in population in recent years: 1999, 3,318; 2001, 3,434; 2006, 3,709.

Figure 8.53: Altona

Figure 8.53: Altona

Figure 8.53

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; camera focal length:

Scale: 1:10,000 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 2; Range 1 W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/4 Altona


8.54: The Location of Morden

This small-scale image shows the Town of Morden 1 (population 6,571 in 2006) located near the western edge of the Lake Agassiz Plain. West and south of the town are several sets of north-northwest/east-southeast trending strandlines 2. Drainage is generally from west to east by Thornhill Creek 3 in the north and Deadhorse Creek 4 flowing through Morden in the centre. The latter has been dammed to create Minnewasta Lake 5 that supplies Morden with water and is also used for recreation.

This is an intensively farmed area with only limited woodland—dark-toned—along creek courses 6. Sections of the DLS system are clearly visible 7. They are often divided into many fields, sometimes with north/south tree shelterbelts 8. The area lies partly in township 2 and partly in township 3. The first correction line runs along the northern edge of township 2, but here the correction is only about 850 feet (254 m) 9 compared with 5280 feet (1609 m) on figure 8.52.

The main transport routes are the east/west CN line 10 that runs through Morden. In the eastern part of town it runs almost exactly east/west but changes direction both east 11 and west 12 of town. PTH 3 13 runs through the centre of Morden, and a faint light-toned line 14 is the route of a buried pipeline. PR 432 15 is the only important north/south route.

Figure 8.54: The Location of Morden

Figure 8.54: The Location of Morden

Figure 8.54

Vertical air photograph: A21743-11

Flight height: 23,150 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:84,500 (approx.)

Date: July 25, 1970

Location: Township 2 and 3; Ranges 4, 5, and 6 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/1 Morden

 


8.55: Morden

On this large-scale image details of the layout of Morden can be seen with Deadhorse Creek 1 flowing through the western part of town. The CN line 2 trends east/west in the east but becomes nearer to west-northwest/east-southeast in the west 3. Two north/south section lines with roads along them run through the east 4 and west 5 of town. That in the west is Mountain Street (PR 432), the main north/south street in town. Other roads are parallel, and at right angles, to these, some of them being coincidentally parallel to the railway line in the eastern part of town. Two roads, unsurprisingly named North Railway Street 6 and South Railway Street 7, run parallel to the railway line. Although the grid predominates, there are some variations in the newer areas near the edges where curved roads 8 and bays 9 can be seen.

PTH 3 10 passes through the centre of town, and in the east it is paralleled by the CN line 11 with two elevators 12 on it. Two sidings—one north 13 and one south 14—diverge from the main line. One east/west road—Stephen Street 15—between the railway line and PTH 3 seems to be the main street; many cars can be seen on it. Along this street and in the area between it and the railway line is the main commercial zone with an abundance of large buildings 16. The town hall 17 is located just outside this zone. The land use north of the commercial zone is mainly residential with tree lined east/west and north/south roads and some bays 18 and crescents. In the northwest is a trailer park 19, a common feature on the edge of Manitoba towns. In the northeast is a large recreation complex 20 with five baseball diamonds 21 and two large buildings 22 that probably house a hockey rink and curling lanes. Given the Mennonite background of the town, several large buildings 23 may be churches. Others may be schools 24.

South of the railway line much of the land use is commercial/industrial 25 with some residential development in the southwest 26 and south 27, the latter surprisingly surrounded by commercial/industrial developments. The Agriculture Canada Research Station 28 occupies the southeast corner of the photo with associated buildings just north of the railway line 29. Several parks 30 are located along Deadhorse Creek.

Figure 8.55: Morden

Figure 8.55: Morden

Figure 8.55

Vertical air photograph: MB96002-171 P.T.H. 3

Flight height: 7,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.098 mm

Scale: 1:11,800 (approx.)

Date: May 27, 1996

Location: Township 3; Range 5 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/1 Morden


8.56: Holland

Section lines of the DLS are clearly seen, but several do not have roads along them; one in particular is lined with trees 9, an unusual situation for a section line in southern Manitoba.

Holland (population 405 in 1991) is located on the Assiniboine Delta; several poorly defined Lake Agassiz strandlines—light-toned—can be seen 1. The hamlet is an example of a settlement with a road pattern partly dictated by the railway line and partly by the DLS system. The CP line 2 with four elevators 3 runs north of the settlement. Roads immediately south of the line are parallel and at right angles to it. One road at right angles is wider 4, and cars can be seen parked along it 5. Newer residential streets in the southern part of the settlement are oriented with respect to the DLS; that is, north/ south and east/west in direction. Details of the hamlet that can be seen are a racetrack 6 with a baseball diamond in the centre 7 and a large building which is probably a hockey rink 8.

Figure 8.56: Holland

Figure 8.56: Holland

Figure 8.56

Vertical air photograph: A16620-10

Flight height: 9,000 feet a.s.l. ; lens focal length: 152.34 mm

Scale 1:15,840 (approx.)

Date: July 2, 1959

Location: Township 7; Range 11 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/10 Treherne


8.57: Holland in 2000

This large-scale colour air photo obtained in 2000 enables more easy identification of features shown on the smaller scale panchromatic photo in figure 8.56, as well as showing changes that have taken place since the photo in figure 8.56 was taken.

1)  Only two of the four elevators remain 1.

2)  The racetrack 2 that still seems to be in use (races took place at the track in 2006) and contains a baseball diamond 3 inside it is easily identified.

3)  There are more buildings south 4 and west 5 of the track.

4)  The large building 6 identified as a hockey rink on 8.56 (#8) has a long, narrow building 7 to the south that is probably a curling rink.

5)  A new large building in the west 8 could be a school or a seniors’ residence.

6)  Residential settlement has filled in one block 9 and has spread further west 10 and east 11 than on figure 8.56.

Figure 8.57: Holland in 2000

Figure 8.57: Holland in 2000

Figure 8.57

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:    lens focal length:

Scale: 1:6,100 (approx.)

Date: 2006

Location: Township 7; Range 11 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/10 Treherne


8.58: Tyndall

The small community of Tyndall is located northeast of Winnipeg and west of Beausejour. The twinned PTH 44 1 bypasses the community to the south, and the straightened Devils Creek 2 that flows west into Lake Winnipeg is located in the southwest. The Canadian Pacific Railway line 3 used to pass west-northwest/east-southeast through the area. The northern part of the settlement has roads parallel to 4 and at right angles to 5 the now non-existent railway line 6. That part of the community that lies within the southern quarter section has north/south 7 and east/west 8 roads that harmonize with the DLS system. Other features that can be seen are:

Figure 8.58: Tyndall

Figure 8.58: Tyndall

Figure 8.58

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:10,500 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 13; Range 6 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/2 Selkirk

1)  A long, narrow building 9 located just west of a north/south road 10 that runs along a section line. Given the shape of the building it probably houses a curling rink.

2)  Sewage lagoons 11, as usual, are located well outside the built-up area—in this case to the west.

3)  Even though the photo was taken in the summer there are wet patches in the fields 12.

Tyndall gives its name to Tyndall Stone although the stone is quarried at Garson, two miles (3.2 km) to the east. It was shipped from Tyndall.


8.59: Elkhorn

The village of Elkhorn (population 461 in 2006) is located in an area of patterned ground moraine with numerous water-occupied depressions 1—dark-toned on the photo. It is another settlement that is partly oriented toward the railway and partly to the DLS system. The CP line 2 runs northwest/southeast along the southern edge of town with three elevators 3 located on it. Two roads run parallel to the line—one on each side—with a railway zone between the two 4. Other roads in the southern part of Elkhorn are parallel to or at right angles to the railway line, whereas roads in the north harmonize with the DLS system. A section road that widens in town 5 to form the main street is the dividing line between the two parts of town. Several large buildings front on this street. Highway 1—the Trans-Canada Highway 6—bypasses the village to the north.

Several of the usual items of infrastructure can be seen: a school 7, a rink 8, and a racetrack 9.

Figure 8.59: Elkhorn

Figure 8.59: Elkhorn

Figure 8.59

Vertical air photograph: A20371-136

Flight height 9,820 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,200 (approx.)

Date: May 12, 1968

Location: Township 11 and 12; Range 28 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/14 Elkhorn

 


8.60: Melita

The town of Melita (population 1,051 in 2006) is sited on the northwest bank of the Souris Spillway, mostly above the flood risk area on the floodplain of the Souris River 1 which flows to the northwest. The CP line 2 crosses the Souris just below Melita 3 and then climbs up the northwest bank of the spillway bypassing Melita on its south side. Three elevators 4 are located on the line, and a road runs parallel to it 5 producing a railway zone. A wide main road runs at right angles 6, producing the characteristic T-shape of many Manitoba settlements. Cars can be seen parked along this road 7 with several large—probably commercial—buildings on either side 8. Most of the rest of Melita follows a grid at 45 degrees to the DLS system, but in the north 9 a newer residential area is oriented to the DLS. PTH 3 10 enters from the east and PTH 83 11 from the north; the two combine and exit from the town to the southwest 12. Several of the usual items of infrastructure can be seen: a school 13, a water tower—identified by its shadow 14, an auditorium/rink 15, a racetrack 16, and a drive-in cinema 17.

Figure 8.60: Melita

Figure 8.60: Melita

Figure 8.60

Air photograph: A20811-55

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,900 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 3 and 4; Ranges 26 and 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50:000 62F/7 Hartney


8.61: The Location of Boissevain

The Town of Boissevain (population 1,497 in 2006) is a market centre in south-central Manitoba located in an area of ground moraine, north of Turtle Mountain. This high-level, small-scale photo shows the setting of the town. A series of small streams 1, tributary to the Pembina River, flow across the area; one of them has been dammed in three places 2 to produce a reservoir 3 that supplies water to the town. The CP line 4 runs through Boissevain at a slight angle to the section lines of the DLS system, and the eastern part of the town is oriented with respect to this line. PTH 10 5 runs north/south through town, following a section line, and the western part of Boissevain has streets that run north/south and east/west in harmony with the DLS system. In addition to these route ways, a long abandoned railway line can be seen entering the town from the north 6 and exiting to the southeast 7. Parts of this line have been drowned by the reservoir 8.

Figure 8.61: The Location of Boissevain

Figure 8.61: The Location of Boissevain

Figure 8.61

Vertical air photograph: A20494-53

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,100 (approx.)

Date: June 19, 1968

Location: Township 3; Range 19 and 20 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine


8.62: Boissevain

All the items mentioned in the description of figure 8.61 can be seen on this image along with other details. For example, a spur 1 runs north from the CP line 2 1 mile (1.6 km) west of town. Where the CP line runs through the town, there are two roads parallel to it—one on either side—with that on the south being wider 3. Between the two roads is a “railway zone” with elevators 4 and other railway-related buildings. In an effort to encourage travelers to stop in Boissevain murals have been painted on elevators and other buildings in the town. Other elevators 5 can be seen just west of PTH 10 6 where the old railway line used to exist. Several of the usual items of infrastructure can be seen: a school 7 with a racing track and baseball diamond 8, and several other large buildings west of highway 10 9 which probably include an auditorium/arena 10 and a hospital.

Figure 8.62: Boissevain

Figure 8.62: Boissevain

Figure 8.62

Vertical air photograph: A19907-54

Flight height: 9,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Township 3; Range 20 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine


8.63: Roblin

The Town of Roblin (population 1,672 in 2006) is located southwest of Duck Mountain, just north of a group of lakes—Roblin Lakes 1. The road pattern is partly in harmony with the railway line—the central part of the town—and partly in harmony with the DLS—the southwest 2 and northeast 3. The latter areas are probably newer and include bays 4 and a curved road that runs between two of the lakes 5.

The CN line 6 passes between two of the lakes and continues in a north-northwest direction through the town 7 before curving to a northwest direction 8. Elevators 9 can be seen on the part of the line that runs in a north-northwest direction. The town’s main road 10 is at right angles to the railway line. Cars can be seen parked obliquely on this road 11 that is wider than other roads. Also many large buildings are located along it 12 and on side roads at right angles to it 13. Roblin is at the intersection of north/south PTH 83 14 and east/west PTH 5 15 which almost bisects the town.

Various individual items can be identified: a recreational area 16 which includes a running track 17 and a curling rink 18; three schools 19; a hospital 20; and a seniors complex 21 and a motel 22. A trailer court—a common feature on the fringes of Manitoba towns—can be seen in the northwest 23.

Figure 8.63: Roblin

Figure 8.63: Roblin

Figure 8.63

Vertical air photograph: MB93009-29 P.T.H. 83

Flight height:  lens focal length: 152.79 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: Spring 1993

Location: Township 26; Range 28 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain

                    1:50,000 62N/3 Roblin


8.64: Swan River

The town of Swan River (population 3,859 in 2006) is located on the south bank of the Swan River 1 in the fertile valley between Duck Mountain to the south and the Porcupine Hills to the north. Located in an area of fertile soils developed on Lake Agassiz sediments, it is the northernmost large agricultural centre in Manitoba.

The older part of town is oriented with respect to the CN line 2 that passes through it in a north-northwest/south-southeast direction. Roads are parallel to and at right angles to this line. Two roads, one on either side of the line 3, run parallel to it defining a railway zone with elevators 4 located along it. PTH 10 5 enters town from the east where it has the form of a divided highway 6. Further west it turns slightly south to harmonize with the railway-determined road pattern. Here it is wider than the other roads 7 and is clearly the main street. A commercial zone, with many large buildings 8, has developed along it and a number of side streets 9. PTH 83 enters from the south 10.

The newer outskirts of town have a road pattern that harmonizes with the DLS system. This is particularly the case in the north, but near the northern edge the grid breaks down, and bays 11 and curved roads along the river 12 using the topography can be seen. Trailer courts 13 are located in the east.

Individual items that can be identified are: racetracks 14, one of which is associated with a school 15, a recreational area with four baseball diamonds 16, a hospital 17, and an airfield 18.

Figure 8.64: Swan River

Figure 8.64: Swan River

Figure 8.64

Vertical air photograph: MB99006-157 P.T.H. 10

Flight height: 6,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.096 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May 10, 1999

Location: Township 36; Range 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62C Swan Lake

                    1:50,000 62C/3 Swan River


8.65: The Location of Shilo

Shilo is different from settlements shown previously in that it is relatively new, and its principal function is as a military base for troops training at CFB Shilo that covers a large part of the Assiniboine Delta. This high-level image shows the general setting of the community and its relationship to others in the area. The Assiniboine River 1, incised into the Assiniboine Delta, cuts across the southwest corner of the image. In the south the east bank 2 has retreated eastward as a result of spring sapping, and one abandoned meander 3 can be seen. The surface of Assiniboine Delta is flat and bounded in the north by Douglas Marsh 4, a former course of a distributary of the Assiniboine River. The marsh is well known in birding circles for its sightings, or to be more correct hearings, of the Yellow Rail. North of the marsh is ground moraine 5.

Route ways that can be seen are Highway 1 6—the Trans-Canada Highway—and PR 457 7 and PR 340 8 from Brandon to Shilo. The CP line 9 swings north of the marsh and through Douglas 10 and Chater 11 and on to Brandon. Two CN lines 12 and 13 cross the south, converging on Brandon whose city limits extend as far east as the dashed line 14. The city’s sewage lagoons 15 and an industrial site 16 are visible, and in the north is a disused triangular airport 17.

The boundary between townships 10 and 11—the third correction line—runs through this area with a correction of about 0.75 mile (1.2 km) 18. Shilo is located in part in range 16 WI—the military part 19 that is in the RM of South Cypress—and in part—the residential part 20—in range 17 WI in Cornwallis. Southwest of town are the sewage lagoons 21 with a pipe leading to them from Shilo and on to the Assiniboine River 22.

Figure 8.65: The Location of Shilo

Figure 8.65: The Location of Shilo

Figure 8.65

Vertical air photograph: A21666-79

Flight height: 22,420 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 9, 10, and 11; Ranges 16, 17, and 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon


8.66: Shilo

More detail can be seen on this image than on figure 8.65. The range line between R 16 WI and R 17 WI 1 separates the military area to the east 2 from the residential area to the west 3. The residential area is unusual in having a series of bays and crescents 4 in contrast to the usual grid. Southwest of the residential area are the sewage lagoons 5, and just to the north are a group of buildings 6 which probably have some military function. Within the residential area one large building is a school 7, and in the military area a group of buildings is a hospital 8. In the southeast is a tall structure 9 throwing a shadow due west 10, indicating that the photo was taken in the early morning. This is a paratroop training tower.

Around the settlement the plain to the south and west is mainly grass-covered with dark-toned, roughly circular patches of creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis) 11. Land to the east is more hilly and partly tree-covered 12, mainly by aspen (Populus tremuloides). Two areas of exotic planted pine can be seen south of town 13, and a small golf course 14 is located to the east. Primitive runways can be seen in the south 15.

Figure 8.66: Shilo

Figure 8.66:  Shilo

Figure 8.66

Vertical air photograph: A23692-111

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; camera focal length: 153.22 mm

Scale: 1:25,500 (approx.)

Date: May 13, 1974

Location: Townships 9 and 10; Ranges 16 and 17 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon


8.67: Wasagaming

The combination of being a semi-urban tourist resort located in a national park and the strongly seasonal nature of its activities, make Wasagaming a unique settlement in Canada.[i] It is also very different from most settlements shown previously in that its origin is not directly transport related, and its street pattern departs from the common grid system. It is located on the southeastern shore of Clear Lake 1 near the southern edge of Riding Mountain National Park, the boundary of which is shown by the dashed line 2.

The town can be divided into five functional areas.

1.  In the east is a commercial area 3 oriented towards tourists; it includes hotels, motels, cabins, restaurants, gift shops, and clothing stores.

2.  Outside this area to west 4 and east 5 are the National Parks services: the park administration building; visitor and interpretation services; the fire hall; the community centre; recreational facilities such as tennis courts 6, playground, marina; and public beach 7. Also included is a large parking area 8 to accommodate large numbers of summer visitors.

3.  To the east is the Clear Lake Seasonal Campground 9 opened in 1963, which consists of a very dense grouping of seasonally opened cabins and trailers. These are held by campers on a yearly basis.

4.  To the west is the Wasagaming Campground 10 which offers over 500 serviced and non-serviced lots for campers. People can camp here for days or perhaps weeks, but they are not allowed to rent for the whole summer season.

5.  North of the campground is the prestigious and expensive area of summer cottages occupying land leased from the park 11.[ii] Some of these are very elaborate and are handed down from generation to generation but still occupancy is possible for only a few months in summer. Since the photo was taken another sub-division has been added on the north shore of Clear Lake 12.

Other items that can be identified are the rubbish dump 13 and the maintenance compound 14 where equipment is kept. PTH 10 15 runs southeast of Wasagaming following a more direct route than the old road 16 which used to run along section lines.

Obtaining a cabin in Clear Lake Seasonal Campground is difficult, and obtaining a cottage in the upscale residential area is both difficult and expensive. Partly in consequence there has been enormous expansion of cottage buildings outside the park but in close proximity to it to make use of its facilities. Wasagaming is unique in Manitoba in that its permanent residential population is almost zero, but during busy summer weekends the influx of people make it the third largest settlement in Manitoba.

Figure 8.67: Wasagaming

Figure 8.67: Wasagaming

Figure 8.67

Vertical air photograph: A17711-130

Flight height: 9,345 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.15 mm

Scale: 1:14,200 (approx.)

Date: July 10, 1962

Location: Township 19; Ranges 18 and 19 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/12 Wasagaming

1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain

Notes

[i] Stadel, C. “The Seasonal Resort of Wasagaming, Riding Mountain National Park” in Welsted, Everitt, and Stadel op. cit., 1996, 298-300.

[ii] Stadel op. cit., 1996, 299.


 


8.68: Wasagaming (Large-Scale)

The larger scale of this photo permits the identification of some detail not obvious on figure 8.67. The photo was taken during the spring when ice on Clear Lake 1 was beginning to disintegrate. Open water can be seen on either side 2 of the breakwater 3, but the rest of the lake is still ice-covered. On the left is the extreme eastern edge of the Clear Lake Seasonal Campground 4 with the parking lot to the east 5. Within the commercial area (outlined 6) at least one group of tourist cabins 7 can be identified. Also some service items of the National Park are seen: the Museum/Interpretative Centre 8, the Administration Building 9, the tennis courts 10, and the Community Centre 11. The patterned arrangement of sites in the Wasagaming Campground 12 is obvious. To the northwest is the area of seasonal cottages with two main roads 13 parallel to the lakeshore and others at right angles 14. PTH 10 15 can just be seen in the southeast corner.

Figure 8.68: Wasagaming (Large-Scale)

Figure 8.68: Wasagaming (Large-Scale)

Figure 8.68

Vertical air photograph

Photograph: D. McArthur

Scale: 1:9,500 (approx.)

Date: 1996

Location: Township 19; Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/12 Wasagaming

1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain National Park


8.69: Oblique Photo of Central Wasagaming

The photo was taken looking northwest with Clear Lake 1 in the background with a jetty 2 projecting into it. The photo was taken in the summer, and several small pleasure boats 3 are moored in the protection of the jetty. In the west (top) is Ominik Marsh 4 leading down to Boat Cove 5 from which boats are launched for a trip on the lake. Nearer the viewer is Clear Lake Seasonal Campground 6 with a large parking lot 7 to the east. Tennis courts 8 are located between it and the jetty. The commercial area of Wasagaming (outlined) occupies most of the central part of the photo. Several motels and sets of tourist cabins 9 can be seen with several blue swimming pools 10. Also visible are some of the National Park’s services including the Museum/Interpretive Centre 11, the Administration Building 12, and the Community Centre 13.

Figure 8.69: Oblique Photo of Central Wasagaming

Figure 8.69: Oblique Photo of Central Wasagaming

Figure 8.69

Low oblique photograph looking northwest

Flight height:  camera focal length:

Date:

Scale: 1:4,000 (approx.) in the foreground, smaller in the background

Location: Township 19, Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/12 Wasagaming

                    1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain National Park

 


8.70: Pinawa

 

Pinawa is different from most other settlements in southern Manitoba in several respects: 1) it is located on the Canadian Shield, so agriculture has played no direct part in its history; 2) land in the area surrounding it is thickly wooded and is not easily divided into sections; 3) it is not located on or near a railway line; and 4) it is organized as a local government district rather than as a village or town.

Shown on the photo is part of the Winnipeg River 1 that is a series of expansions rather than a clearly defined channel of uniform width. In the north is the Pinawa channel 2 of the Winnipeg River on which the first Winnipeg River hydroelectric power plant was opened in 1906. Since then six other power stations have been built on the river, and the Pinawa plant closed in 1951.[i] However, the dam and some equipment have been preserved in Pinawa Dam Provincial Heritage Park located a few miles west, downstream, of the photo.

The settlement of Pinawa is served by PR 211 3 from the west and was established as an Atomic Energy of Canada research centre. It is therefore much newer than most settlements in southern Manitoba. Its relatively remote position and the availability of large quantities of water were probably factors in its location. Roads do not follow the usual grid and to some degree use the lay of the land 4.

Several clusters of large buildings can be seen 5 which are probably research labs. The large building 6 near the running track 7 is probably a school. Recreation for employees includes golf—a course is located in the north 8—and boating—a marina 9 can be seen in the centre.

Except where trees have been removed for buildings, the land is covered by dark-toned coniferous forest 10 with occasional marshy areas 11.

Figure 8.70: Pinawa

Figure 8.70: Pinawa

Figure 8.70

Vertical air photograph: MB96045-204

Flight height: 8,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152 mm

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: July 3, 1996

Location: Township 14; Range 12 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 52L Point du Bois

                    1:50,000 52L/4 Pinawa

Notes

[i] For details see Welsted, J. “Manitoba’s Water Resources” in Welsted, Everitt, and Stadel. op. cit., 1996, 266-280.



8.70: Delete this 8.71