Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
7: Survey Systems
Click for chapter introduction
Land holdings in most of southern Manitoba have been determined using one of two systems. The older long-lot system, derived from the St. Lawrence lowlands in Quebec, is found along the Red River, along the Assiniboine River west to Portage la Prairie, as well as in several other isolated areas. Lots were laid out at right angles to the river, resulting in a distinctive pattern easily observed on remotely sensed images. The DSL system, which divided land into one square mile sections, was applied to virtually all other areas. The resulting squared pattern is a prominent feature on remotely sensed images. Interesting situations occur where the two systems come into contact. The DLS system was amended several times, but in Manitoba there is evidence of only the first and third systems. Careful interpretation of air photos can reveal the differences between the two systems.
7.8: The DLS System (Third System) East of Duck Mountain Southwest of Ethelbert
This small-scale photo shows a mainly agricultural area 1 east of Duck Mountain that is mainly wooded and therefore dark-toned 2. Traversing the area from north-northwest to south-southeast are several Lake Agassiz strandlines 3 identified on the basis of tonal variations that reflect different land uses. Another group of strandlines 4 at a lower level can be seen in the northeast.
North of township 27, the Third System of the DLS is used. Under this new system, adopted in 1881, townships were 6 chains shorter measured north/south and 3 chains narrower measured east/west (along the base lines). Road allowances were reduced in width to 1 chain (66 feet) compared with 99 feet in the First System. Road allowances run north/south between all sections; but east/west road allowances occur every two sections. Most of these changes are not visible on air photos, but the existence of east/west road allowances every two sections is obvious, as light-toned gravel roads have been constructed along most of them 5 as indicated on the overlay. Quarter sections can be identified in agricultural areas as they are often marked by dark-toned hedges 6, whereas in wooded areas they are light-toned clearings 7.
PTH 10 8 in the east follows the trend of one of the Lake Agassiz ridges, departing from the usual north/south or east/west arrangement of roads. The CN railway line 9 clips the northeastern corner of the area, and an intermittent light-toned line 10 indicates the location of a power line.
Figure 7.8: The DLS System (Third System) East of Duck Mountain Southwest of Ethelbert
Vertical air photograph: A21750-19
Flight height: 23,920 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.85 mm
Scale: 1:81,200 (approx.)
Location: Townships 27, 28, and 29; Ranges 21, 22, and 23 WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain
1:50,000 62N/8 Sifton