Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
7: Survey Systems
Click for chapter introduction
Land holdings in most of southern Manitoba have been determined using one of two systems. The older long-lot system, derived from the St. Lawrence lowlands in Quebec, is found along the Red River, along the Assiniboine River west to Portage la Prairie, as well as in several other isolated areas. Lots were laid out at right angles to the river, resulting in a distinctive pattern easily observed on remotely sensed images. The DSL system, which divided land into one square mile sections, was applied to virtually all other areas. The resulting squared pattern is a prominent feature on remotely sensed images. Interesting situations occur where the two systems come into contact. The DLS system was amended several times, but in Manitoba there is evidence of only the first and third systems. Careful interpretation of air photos can reveal the differences between the two systems.
7.6: Long Lots at St. Malo
The St. Malo settlement was surveyed into long lots in the 1880s. In this high-level, small-scale air photo the long lots based on the Rat River 1 are visible. They are more noticeable southwest of the river 2 where a secondary road sub-parallel to the river 3 has houses located along it in a linear settlement 4. The settlement of St. Malo 5 is located along this road with secondary roads running back from it parallel to the long lots. PTH 59 6 bypasses St. Malo en route to Winnipeg further north. Northeast of the river most of the land is wooded (dark-toned) 7 so that long lots are not so obvious. The grid pattern of the DLS completely surrounds the long lot area, the boundary between the two being indicated by the dashed line 8. The grid is most noticeable in the west where most of the land is agricultural. In contrast the east is woodland or marsh.
A dam producing a reservoir 9 that is now the basis of St. Malo Provincial Park, blocks the Rat River. Campsites can be seen north of the reservoir 10. The dam constructed by the PFRA also functions as flood control mechanism and for water supply.
The western half of the photo contains a number of faint linear features. The Canadian Pacific Railway line 11 runs through the small settlements of Arnaud 12 and Dufrost 13. Just to the east near Dufrost is a faint north-northeast/south-southwest trending line 14. This is the route of a gas pipeline; it continues south along section lines but cannot be seen as a separate item when this happens 15. West of the CP line are two angular lines 16; these are drainage channels that eventually join the Marsh River off the photo to the west. Finally, a discontinuous faint line with a north-northwest/south-southeast trend 17 is a Lake Agassiz strandline.
Figure 7.6: Long Lots at St. Malo
Vertical air photograph: A21744-27
Flight height: 22,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.611 mm
Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)
Date: July 25, 1970
Location: Townships 3, 4, and 5; Ranges 3, 4, and 5 E
Location of north end of reservoir: 49º 19' N, 96º 56' W
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg
1:50,000 62H/7 St. Malo