Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
7: Survey Systems
Click for chapter introduction
Land holdings in most of southern Manitoba have been determined using one of two systems. The older long-lot system, derived from the St. Lawrence lowlands in Quebec, is found along the Red River, along the Assiniboine River west to Portage la Prairie, as well as in several other isolated areas. Lots were laid out at right angles to the river, resulting in a distinctive pattern easily observed on remotely sensed images. The DSL system, which divided land into one square mile sections, was applied to virtually all other areas. The resulting squared pattern is a prominent feature on remotely sensed images. Interesting situations occur where the two systems come into contact. The DLS system was amended several times, but in Manitoba there is evidence of only the first and third systems. Careful interpretation of air photos can reveal the differences between the two systems.
7.20: Contact Between the First and Third Systems of the DLS North of Roblin
This photo shows the complicated contact between the First and Third Systems in western Manitoba. The dashed line on the overlay indicates the contact between the two. The southern half of the area is in township 26 and was therefore surveyed using the First System. The eastern boundary of range 29 WI 1 can be traced north to the township 26/27 line 2 where it jogs over a mile (1.6 km) to the west 3 before continuing north 4. Land in township 27, range 29 WI was also surveyed using the First System. East of range 29 WI, north of township 26, is range 29A which is just over one section wide 5; east of this is range 28 WI. In ranges 28 WI and 29A, township 27 is only four sections deep 6, and it and township 28 are surveyed using the Third System.
It is noticeable that there is a small jog between townships 26 and 27 in the east 7 (this is the contact between the First and Third Systems), whereas in the west in range 29 WI, which is all surveyed in the First System, the jog is well over a mile 8.
The area is covered by ground moraine dotted by lakes, for example, Roblin Lakes in the south 9. Two misfit streams flow in large valleys created by melt water from ice on Duck Mountain (off the photo to the north). In the east is the Shell River 10 which meanders inside a large valley, which itself has a meandering path 11 in harmony with its once large discharge. In the west is Big Boggy Creek 12 in a wooded, steep-sided valley 13 that flows to the Assiniboine in the west, just off the photo—or more correctly to Lake of the Prairies created by the damming of the Assiniboine River near Shellmouth.
Roblin 14 in the south is a transport hub. The CN line runs through it and then northward along the valley of Big Boggy Creek 15. Roads in Roblin are oriented with respect to the railway line. Also, PTH 83 runs north/south 16 and PTH 5 east/west 17, both passing through Roblin.
Figure 7.20: Contact Between the First and Third Systems of the DLS North of Roblin
Vertical air photograph: A21750-43
Flight height: 24,120 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.85 mm
Scale 1:79,200 (approx.)
Date: July 27, 1970
Location: Townships 26, 27, and 28; Ranges 28, 29A and 29WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain
1:50,000 62N/6 Burrows Lake