Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
7: Survey Systems
Click for chapter introduction
Land holdings in most of southern Manitoba have been determined using one of two systems. The older long-lot system, derived from the St. Lawrence lowlands in Quebec, is found along the Red River, along the Assiniboine River west to Portage la Prairie, as well as in several other isolated areas. Lots were laid out at right angles to the river, resulting in a distinctive pattern easily observed on remotely sensed images. The DSL system, which divided land into one square mile sections, was applied to virtually all other areas. The resulting squared pattern is a prominent feature on remotely sensed images. Interesting situations occur where the two systems come into contact. The DLS system was amended several times, but in Manitoba there is evidence of only the first and third systems. Careful interpretation of air photos can reveal the differences between the two systems.
7.17: Correction Line Between Townships 34 and 35 South of Swan River
The photograph shows the wooded—dark-toned—northeast corner of Duck Mountain 1 with the fertile Swan River Plain to the north. The correction line between townships 34 and 35 can be seen by tracing the range line between ranges 27 and 28 WI 2 north until it reaches the township line where it jogs west about 1.25 miles (2 km) 3. The same can be done with the range line between ranges 28 and 29 WI 4 with the same result except that the jog is slightly larger 5.
This area was surveyed using the Third System of the DLS in which there is a north/south road allowance every section, but east/west allowances occur only every two sections. This is reflected in the predominance of north/south light-toned gravel roads 6. One road 7 is an oddity: it runs along a section line where there is no road allowance.
The drainage in this flat area is generally to the north. A series of small creeks—Lobstick Creek 8, Thomas Creek 9, Hay Creek 10, Ruby River 11, and Roaring River 12—with dark-toned wooded sides drain eventually into Swan River 13 that meanders across the northwest corner.
The main linear features include the CN railway line 14 that traverses the area linking the settlements of Durban 15 and Kenville 16. In the former, the railway line determines the road direction, whereas in Kenville roads are oriented with respect to the DLS system. Part of the CN route is also followed by PTH 83 17 but it digresses from it in the north 18 and south 19. Rather unusually, several almost white clouds can be seen 20 casting dark-toned shadows to the north 21, indicating that the photo was taken near noon sun time.
Figure 7.17: Correction Line Between Townships 34 and 35 South of Swan River
Vertical air photograph: A21810-2
Flight height 20,000 feet a.s.l.; camera focal length: 304.8 mm
Scale: 1:66,700 (approx.)
Date: May 9, 1930
Location: Townships 33, 34, and 35; Ranges 27, 28, and 29 WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain
63C Swan Lake
1:50,000 62N/14 Durban
63C/3 Swan River