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Chapter 7: Survey Systems

7.12: Correction Line Between Townships 2 and 3 Near Pilot Mound

“Because the eastern and western boundaries of townships are meridians (true north and south), they converge northwards, and the DLS system had to take this into account. At the 49th parallel, the southern edge of each township is six miles plus six 99-foot road allowances. The northern edge of the township is about 61 feet shorter, and the northern edge of the second township is an additional 61 feet shorter. To adjust for this convergence, a new base line was added at the northern edge of township 2 and the southern edge of township 3 was made approximately 112 feet longer than at the 49th parallel, and at the northern edge of township 6, it is once again 112 feet shorter.

This pattern was repeated every four townships north. Thus there are correction lines between townships 2 and 3 and between townships 6 and 7 where north/south roads jog westward by 224 feet at the western edge of range 1W. At the western edge of range 2W, the size of the jog is doubled, and it increases by about 224 feet every range westward. Thus at the Saskatchewan border the jog is well over a mile and is expressed in the stepped border between the two provinces. Within the townships, all sections are the same [or are supposed to be] except those along the western edge of the townships, where the differences are all accommodated in the most westerly quarter section”[i] (see figure7.10).

In this photo the correction line between townships 2 and 3 can be seen by tracing the boundary between ranges 10 and 11WI 1 north through township 2 to the boundary between townships 2 and 3. There it takes a jog (of about 2240 feet/ 682 m) westward 2 before continuing north. It can be seen that all the north/south section lines in the northern tier of township 2 end at the boundary between townships 2 and 3 3. North/south section lines in the southern tier of township 3 4 are located about 2240 feet west of those in township 2.

In this flat agricultural region, section lines can be easily identified, as can the town of Pilot Mound 5 and the village of Crystal City 6. The settlements are joined by the CN railway line 7, and in both, roads are oriented parallel to and at right angles to the line—across the trend of the DLS system. PTH 34 8 also links the two, but it bypasses Pilot Mound 9 before continuing east. Another north-northwest/south-southeast linear feature 10 is probably the route of an abandoned railway line.

The area is mainly a flat ground moraine-covered plain, but in the northeast gullies 11 lead to the Pembina River (just off the photo to the northeast). Also, poorly defined Agassiz strandlines 12 trend northwest/southeast neat Pilot Mound, and a small stream draining west to the Pembina Valley has been dammed to produce a reservoir 13.

Figure 7.12: Correction Line Between Townships 2 and 3 Near Pilot Mound

Figure 7.12: Correction Line Between Townships 2 and 3 Near Pilot Mound

Figure 7.12

Vertical air photograph: A21743-4

Flight height: 23,150 feet a.s.l. ; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:80,200 (approx.)

Date: July 25, 1970

Location: Townships 2 and 3; Ranges 10, 11, and 12 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon 

1:50,000 62 G/2 Pilot Mound


[i] Richtik, J. “The Township and Range Survey System” in Welsted, Everitt, and Stadel. op. cit., 1996, 102.