Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
Click for chapter introduction
Manitoba displays a large range of vegetation types that are arranged with a climatically determined north/south zonation. Grass-covered areas in the south give way to parkland and forested areas further north and eventually to shrub tundra in the extreme northeast.
In southern and west central Manitoba, agriculture, grazing, forestry and urban development have drastically altered the natural vegetation, but vast areas in the north and northeast are in near pristine state. Vegetation that often obscures the earth’s surface is clearly shown on air photos; particularly useful are colour infrared images that can detect stressed areas. Wetlands cover about 40 percent of Manitoba and do not conform to the climatically determined zonal distribution of vegetation. They occur in all parts of the province and provide distinctive ground cover well shown on air photos.
Individual animals are too small to appear on all except very large-scale images. However, some animals (e.g. beaver) profoundly affect drainage systems.
5.11: Vegetation in the Central Part of Duck Mountain
The photograph shows the lake-strewn central part of Duck Mountain. On the image lakes show in various grey tones, depending on their depth, suspended sediment load, and the sun/camera/water surface relationship (the specular reflection effect). East Blue Lake 1, West Blue Lake 2, Swallow Lake 3, Beautiful Lake 4, Whitemud Lake 5, Elk Lake 6, Island Lake 7, and Singush Lake 8 all appear as dark grey, whereas Cache Lake 9 is light grey, and a small, unnamed lake in the east 10 is almost white.
Almost the whole area is covered by natural vegetation, in this area mixed woods consisting of coniferous trees on higher land and birch (Betula papyrifera) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in better-drained lowlands. The dominant trees are probably white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana). Wooded areas are dark-toned 11 with light-toned areas of aquatic vegetation surrounding some of the lakes 12. It is noticeable, however, that the northwest is lighter toned 13, the result of a forest fire. This is the same scar that can be seen on the LANDSAT image in figure 5.10.
The area is almost devoid of human occupation, but some recreational development is seen at the north end of East Blue Lake 14 and south of Marge Lake 15. Two major transport routes intersect on the photo: the east/west PR 367 16 and north/south PR 366 17.
Figure 5.11: Vegetation in the Central Part of Duck Mountain
Vertical air photograph: A21849-38
Flight height: 24,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.22 mm
Date: August 7, 1970
Scale: 1:77,800 (approx.)
Location: Townships 30 and 31; Ranges 24 and 25 WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain
1:50,000 62N/10 Sinqush Lake