Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
Click for chapter introduction
Manitoba displays a large range of vegetation types that are arranged with a climatically determined north/south zonation. Grass-covered areas in the south give way to parkland and forested areas further north and eventually to shrub tundra in the extreme northeast.
In southern and west central Manitoba, agriculture, grazing, forestry and urban development have drastically altered the natural vegetation, but vast areas in the north and northeast are in near pristine state. Vegetation that often obscures the earth’s surface is clearly shown on air photos; particularly useful are colour infrared images that can detect stressed areas. Wetlands cover about 40 percent of Manitoba and do not conform to the climatically determined zonal distribution of vegetation. They occur in all parts of the province and provide distinctive ground cover well shown on air photos.
Individual animals are too small to appear on all except very large-scale images. However, some animals (e.g. beaver) profoundly affect drainage systems.
5.1: Broadleaf Deciduous Forest in Turtle Mountain
Areas of broadleaf deciduous forest are limited in Manitoba, the best examples being in Turtle Mountain—shown here—and the Brandon Hills. “These are quite unlike the broadleaf deciduous forests in eastern Canada, being dominated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)”.[i]
Figure 5.1 is a high-level, small-scale photo of the western part of Turtle Mountain that straddles the Canada/U.S.A. border. A thick layer of hummocky moraine that supports a deciduous tree cover blankets the surface. At the time the photo was taken, the trees bore green leaves that result in a dark-grey tone 1 with mottled texture. Numerous lakes occupy depressions in the moraine; some are large enough to be named on the 1:250,000 map of the area: Lake Metigoshe 2, Dromore Lake 3, Partridge Lake 4, Sharpe Lake 5, Nellie Lake 6, Gordon Lake 7, Cauldwell Lake 8, and Rebecca Lake 9. The lakes vary in tone from dark-grey—Lake Metigoshe, to almost white—Cauldwell Lake, resulting from the specular reflection effect.
On the Canadian side of the border little forest has been cleared for agriculture within Turtle Mountain and a large segment has been designated as Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, the northern boundary of which can be picked out on the basis of land use 10—forested in the park to the south and cleared for agriculture to the north. The international border 11 can also be picked out on the basis of the same land use variation—mainly forested in Canada with more agricultural clearing in the U.S.A.
In Canada sections of the DLS system are clearly seen 12 with gravel roads along some section lines 13. PR 450 follows section lines in the north but diverges westward 14 to avoid Sharpe Lake in the south.
Figure 5.1: Broadleaf Deciduous Forest in Turtle Mountain
Vertical air photograph: A21821-42
Flight height: 23,370 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.55 mm
Date: August 10, 1970
Scale: 1:80,200 (approx.)
Location in Canada: Townships 1 and 2; Ranges 21 and 22 WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden
1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine
[i] Scott, G. A. J. “Manitoba’s Ecoclimate Regions” in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land Its Prople eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt, and C. Stadel. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, 1996, 46.