Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
Click for chapter introduction
Manitoba’s location in Canada is best shown on high level satellite images with some cartographic enhancement to show the position of its borders (Figure 2.1). In the case of Figure 2.1, a satellite 900 km above the earth’s surface obtained the individual images used in its construction. Manitoba has borders with the United States to the south; Saskatchewan to the west; Ontario to the east; and Nunavut to the north. These have been added to the image and are not, of course, represented by any physical barrier on the ground. Differences of land use on either side of the international border may make it recognizable even on small-scale satellite images (Figure2.5) as well as on larger scale air photographs (Figures 2.6 and 2.7). However, the border is not always marked by land use differences (Figure 2.8), and in some cases, although there is a clear tonal difference from one side to the other, it is not obvious what this represents on the ground (Figure 2.9).
The inter-provincial borders and the border with Nunavut cannot be distinguished on the basis of land use differences because none exist. In wooded areas (Figure 2.10) the border is often represented by a cut line, but in agricultural areas (Figure 2.11) the border is merely an abstract line symbolically represented on maps.
A high proportion of Manitoba’s total area (15.6 percent) is water including some very large lakes, for example, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Manitoba, and Cedar Lake These and many smaller lakes can be identified on satellite images (Figure 2.2, and 2.3). Not only their location can be seen but also information can be obtained about their depth and sediment content (Figure 2.3).
2.6: The Canada-U.S.A. Border in Ranges 18, 19, and 20WI
The photograph shows the eastern flank of Turtle Mountain that straddles the international border. In Canada much more of the original woodland remains, making it possible for the interpreter to locate the border. In this area, the Cretaceous bedrock is overlain by thick hummocky moraine with numerous hollows many of which are lake-filled. Some of the larger lakes are named on the 1:50,000 topographic map: Beaver Lake 1, Adams Lake 2,Charlton Lake 3, and William Lake 4. The last is the centerpiece of William Lake Provincial Recreational Park, a favourite venue for windsurfers. Lakes appear in various tones ranging from almost black 5, to dark grey (William Lake 4), to light grey (Charlton Lake 3) to almost white 6. The variation from very dark grey to almost white is a result of the relationship of sun angle, water surface and camera angle, with the almost white tone being the result of specular reflection. The variation from very dark grey to light grey is a result of lake depth and sediment content: deeper lakes with little suspended sediment are very dark toned, whereas shallow lakes with suspended sediment are light toned.
North and east of Turtle Mountain the characteristic checkerboard pattern of the DLS system that covers most of southern Manitoba can be clearly seen. Roads follow the section lines of the system 7, but in Turtle Mountain light-toned lines 8 representing access trails are much more haphazard.
PTH 10 9, which continues in some form or another southward to the Gulf of Mexico, crosses the border near the western edge of the photograph. At the border crossing is the International Peace Garden 10 created to recognize the traditional harmony between Canada and the United States. Running diagonally across the north is a long-abandoned railway line 11.
Figure 2.6: The Canada/U.S.A. Border in Ranges 18, 19, and 20WI
Vertical air photograph: A21821-45
Flight height: 24,000 a.s.l.; lens focal length, 85.55 mm
Date: August 10, 1970
Scale: 1: 74,000 (approx.)
Location: Townships 1 and 2, Ranges 18, 19 and 20 WI.
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62 G Brandon and 62 F Virden
1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney