Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
Click for chapter introduction
Manitoba’s location in Canada is best shown on high level satellite images with some cartographic enhancement to show the position of its borders (Figure 2.1). In the case of Figure 2.1, a satellite 900 km above the earth’s surface obtained the individual images used in its construction. Manitoba has borders with the United States to the south; Saskatchewan to the west; Ontario to the east; and Nunavut to the north. These have been added to the image and are not, of course, represented by any physical barrier on the ground. Differences of land use on either side of the international border may make it recognizable even on small-scale satellite images (Figure2.5) as well as on larger scale air photographs (Figures 2.6 and 2.7). However, the border is not always marked by land use differences (Figure 2.8), and in some cases, although there is a clear tonal difference from one side to the other, it is not obvious what this represents on the ground (Figure 2.9).
The inter-provincial borders and the border with Nunavut cannot be distinguished on the basis of land use differences because none exist. In wooded areas (Figure 2.10) the border is often represented by a cut line, but in agricultural areas (Figure 2.11) the border is merely an abstract line symbolically represented on maps.
A high proportion of Manitoba’s total area (15.6 percent) is water including some very large lakes, for example, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Manitoba, and Cedar Lake These and many smaller lakes can be identified on satellite images (Figure 2.2, and 2.3). Not only their location can be seen but also information can be obtained about their depth and sediment content (Figure 2.3).
2.11: The Manitoba/Saskatchewan Border in Townships 2 and 3
The provincial border follows the range line between ranges 29 and 30 WI 1. The correction line at the northern edge of township 2 2 can be seen, and as the area is far to the west of the principal meridian, the correction is almost a section and a half (a mile and a half or 2.4 km) in length.
Natural vegetation has been almost completely removed for agriculture. Two small agricultural communities exist: Pierson in Manitoba 3 and Gainsborough in Saskatchewan 4. In the latter, roads run north/south and east/west in harmony with the DLS system, whereas in Pierson roads are parallel, and at right angles, to the CPR line 5 that enters the settlement from the northeast and then runs parallel to the township line and PTH 3 in Manitoba 6 (highway 18 in Saskatchewan). Sewage lagoons at 7 and 8 are located just outside each community.
Doughnut-shaped mounds 9 left by melting stagnant ice cover the area. Although they are very clear from the air—even on this small-scale photograph—no more than 2 metres height difference exists between the raised rim and the bowl. Rain splash erosion has removed dark-coloured, small-sized fragments from higher areas resulting in a light-toned rim surrounding a dark-toned basin.
In the west, Gainsborough Creek 10 loops around Gainsborough and then drains southeast to the Souris River (off the photo). A reflection of the semi-aridity of this area is the existence of field shelterbelts southeast of Pierson 11. These belts of trees are a PFRA (Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration) response to the severe wind erosion that occurred across the southern prairies in the 1930s.
Figure 2.11: The Manitoba/Saskatchewan Border in Townships 2 and 3
Vertical air photographs: A21749-66
Flight height: 25,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length 88.29 mm
Date: July 27, 1970
Location: Townships 2 and 3, Ranges 29 and 30W1
Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden
1:50,000 62F/3 Gainsborough