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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Chapter 18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present

Introduction

 

By virtue of its coastline along Hudson Bay, Manitoba is a maritime province. Churchill is its only port handling a few ships in late summer each year. In the past river and lake transport was important, and, although there is still some on Lake Winnipeg, there is none on Manitoba’s rivers. Several ferries used to cross lakes and rivers; the location of some of them can be seen on old air photos. Winter roads cross frozen ground and frozen lakes in winter, but as nearly all air photos are taken during the summer, the roads are not readily located, although in a few cases scars left by the roads are observed.

In the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th century, numerous railway lines criss-crossed southern Manitoba influencing the location and layout of villages and towns. Railway lines are very sensitive to gradients, and in many cases the topography dictates that a line takes something other than the shortest route. Railway line abandonment dominated the second half of the 20th century, but although a route may have been abandoned many years ago, its former location is obvious on air photos.

Roads have to some extent replaced the railway lines. They have a general east/west alignment (the Trans-Canada Highway No. 1, The Yellowhead Route No. 16, PTH 2 and PTH 3) or north/south alignment (PTH 10 and PTH 5). The main sources of electricity are in the southeast and the north. Power lines carry electricity to most parts of the province. They can be seen on air photos especially where they cut through wooded land. Similarly the routes followed by oil and gas pipelines are identifiable because when they are buried the soil is disturbed to result in a different tone or colour than the surrounding land, a variation that is easily detected on air photos. The topography of southern Manitoba lends itself to easy construction of airports, hence the location of the Commonwealth Air Training Programme airports in southern Manitoba—as well as other parts of the prairies. For a time in the second half of the 20th century, virtually every small town had an airport or landing strip. Many have been abandoned, but they still stand out on air photos. Landing strips are especially important to northern communities.

18.1: The Port of Churchill

Manitoba is the only Prairie Province that has a seacoast and contains the region’s only port, Churchill, located at the mouth of the Churchill River 1 on the coast of Hudson Bay 2. Churchill can be reached by the Hudson’s Bay Railway line that starts at Winnipeg, runs northwest into Saskatchewan, back into Manitoba southwest of The Pas, from where it runs northeast through Gillam, across the Nelson River and then north to Churchill. Completed in 1930, it was intended to provide an outlet for prairie products (grain) intended for Europe. Although located closer to European ports than Montreal and Quebec, it is hampered by the fact that Hudson Bay is frozen for long periods. Consequently the long-term future of both the railway line and of Churchill is in doubt. However, the phenomenon of global warming which could produce a longer ice-free period may auger well for Churchill’s future. The Hudson Bay Railway is owned by railway holding company OmniTRAX based in Denver, Colorado.

Seen here is the railway line 3 entering from the south. It runs northeast of massive grain silos 4. Branch lines lead to the dockside 5 and to four large fuel storage tanks 6; six smaller tanks can be seen further south 7. Many train cars can be seen on the tracks in several locations 8, those near the fuel storage tanks having the distinctive shadow of oil trucks 9. A conveyor system 10 leads from one of the silos to the dock where three large ships are visible 11.

Figure 18.1: The Port of Churchill

Figure 18.1: The Port of Churchill

Figure 18.1

Vertical air photograph: A16776-44

Flight height: 5,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.38 mm

Scale:

Date: September 4, 1959

Location of the south end of the dock: 58º 46' 27" N, 94º 11' 31"W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54L Churchill

                    1:50,000 54L/16 Dickens Lake


18.2: Ferry on the Assiniboine River South of Rossendale

In the past there were several ferries across the Assiniboine River; bridges have replaced all except one at Stockton. On air photos there is little to show the existence of a ferry except that a road approaches the river on one side and continues directly opposite on the other.

Here, south of Rossendale, a north/south ferry 1 crosses the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 2. Careful inspection reveals a small ferry 3, big enough to carry perhaps four cars, near the south bank of the river.

In this area the Assiniboine is incised into its delta with a steep, mainly wooded valley side on the south 4. Where the woodland has been removed, severe soil erosion 5 has resulted with gullies on the valley side 6 and light-toned alluvial deposits on the flat land below 7. Meander scrolls 8, point bars 9, and an abandoned river channel 10 are also visible.

Note that shadows fall east 11, indicating that the photo was taken in the late afternoon.

Figure 18.2: Ferry on the Assiniboine River South of Rossendale

Figure 18.2: Ferry on the Assiniboine River South of Rossendale

Figure 18.2

Vertical air photograph: A16574-52

Flight height: 8,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date: June 19, 1959

Location: Township 9; Range 9WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/15 MacGregor


18.3: Topographic Influence on Railway and Road Directions Near Miami

Railway Lines

Following the building of the CP railway line through southern Manitoba, numerous other east/west lines, with connecting north/south lines, were constructed, mainly to service the grain trade. Many settlements in southern Manitoba owe their existence to the arrival of the railway. By about 1900 there were enough lines, and after that there was over-building with the result that soon afterwards rail line abandonment started. From 1952 onwards many lines were abandoned, but these lines left their mark on the landscape that can be seen to this day. Various aspects of railway lines are shown in the following photos.

Construction of railway lines at great speed and in straight lines was possible at only a few locations across the prairies. Railways are intolerant of steep slopes, and strategies were adopted to avoid these wherever possible.

Shown on this photo is the steep, wooded eastern edge of the Assiniboine Delta 1 that is dissected by several small eastward-flowing stream valleys 2. East of the delta edge is a prominent, northwest/southeast Agassiz strandline 3. These topographic features influence the direction of transport routes in the area. Two east/west railway lines are just visible. In the north, a line runs east/west 4 through Roseisle 5, and then veers southwest along a wooded valley 6 to avoid the steep edge of the delta front. In the south an east/west line 7 through Miami 8 veers northwest along a strandline 9, then west to the edge of the delta 10 where it makes a large loop northward 11 and then south 12 to minimize the gradient as it crosses the delta edge.

Two major east/west roads can be seen; PR 245 is straight 13 except for a southward bend across the delta edge 14. In the south PTH 23 cuts diagonally across a section 15—possibly to avoid a small creek valley to the south 16. Northwest of Miami a discontinuous secondary road follows a strandline 17.

Figure 18.3: Topographic Influence on Railway and Road Directions Near Miami

Figure 18.3: Topographic Influence on Railway and Road Directions Near Miami

Figure 18.3

Vertical air photograph: A21668-10

Flight height: 22,360 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:79,000 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Township 5 and 6; Ranges 6, 7 and 8WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/8 Miami

 

 


18.4: Railway Loop East of Deerwood

This low-level, large-scale photo shows detail of the railway loop 1 seen on figure 18.3. The line rises by 300 feet (91.5 m) between the eastern and western edges of the area shown without experiencing a steep gradient. This is not quite on a par with the spiral tunnels in the Rockies, but the strategy avoids the steep gradient that would occur if the line climbed directly up the face of the Assiniboine Delta. Note also a newly constructed stretch of PTH 23 in the southwest 2 and two pits (3 and 4) exploiting sand and gravel of two north-northwest/south-southeast trending Lake Agassiz strandlines (5 and 6).

Figure 18.4: Railway Loop East of Deerwood

Figure 18.4: Railway Loop East of Deerwood

Figure 18.4

Vertical air photograph: A16183-31

Flight height: 10,050 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: July 22, 1958

Location: Township 5; Range 7W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


18.5: Topographic Influence on Route Ways South of Shellmouth

The photograph shows the south-flowing Assiniboine 1 in the west, joined by Thunder Creek 2 from the north. The Assiniboine occupies a steep-sided 3 flat-floored 4 spillway, whereas Thunder Creek has eroded a v-shaped valley 5.

A long-abandoned railway line ran from Endcliffe 6 in the southeast to Shellmouth (off the photo to the north). A direct route would have run directly northwest from Endcliffe, but there is a large northward loop 7 probably to avoid crossing the valley of Thunder Creek at its deepest; even so a substantial embankment 8 was needed to cross the valley. Note also the route followed by a secondary road in the south that angles down the valley side of Thunder Creek 9.

Figure 18.5: Topographic Influence on Route Ways South of Shellmouth

Figure 18.5: Topographic Influence on Route Ways South of Shellmouth

Figure 18.5

Vertical air photograph: A15537-19

Flight height: 20,000 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:36,200 (approx.)

Date: October 9, 1956

Location: Townships 21 and 22; Ranges 28 and 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis


18.6: Topographic Influence on Route Ways in the Binscarth/Millwood Area

In the west is seen the south-flowing Assiniboine River 1 with a deeply incised creek 2 flowing northwest to join it (off the photo). This creek backs toward another in the southeast 3 that flows towards Silver Creek—an Assiniboine tributary. The CP line 4 between Binscarth (off the photo to the southeast) and Millwood (off the photo to the northwest) exploits the two creek valleys running down the valley side 5 of one creek and along the floor of the other 6 and up its side 7, avoiding steep gradients in the process.

Also noticeable is the route of PR 478 8 that runs along the side of an Assiniboine tributary 9 valley in the west and follows a hairpin bend 10 down the side of another creek in the east.

Figure 18.6: Topographic Influence on Route Ways in the Binscarth/Millwood Area

Figure 18.6: Topographic Influence on Route Ways in the Binscarth/Millwood Area

Figure 18.6

Vertical air photograph: A15532-22

Flight height: 20,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:35,200 (approx.)

Date: October 9, 1956

Location: Township 19; Range 28 and 29W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/11 Binscarth


18.7: Railway Line on a Glacial Lake Floor

Building railway lines across abandoned lake floors did not present the same topographic challenges as in hilly areas; lines could be constructed more or less in straight lines from point to point. However, once they had been constructed there was the potential problem of blowing snow burying the lines.

Shown here is the CP line 1 on the floor of Glacial Lake Hind leading into Napinka 2. It crosses a small creek 3 draining to the northeast-flowing Souris River 4. In order to alleviate the blowing snow problem, fences/hedges have been built parallel to and on both sides of the line in two locations 5.

Notice also Napinka’s cemetery 6, surrounded by imported coniferous trees 7 (dark tone and triangular shadow shape) and located well outside the settlement.

Figure 18.7: Railway Line on a Glacial Lake Floor

Figure 18.7: Railway Line on a Glacial Lake Floor

Figure 18.7

Vertical air photograph: A16402-64

Flight height: 10,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6.01 inches

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: October 17, 1958

Location: Township 3; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/7 Napinka


18.8: Railway Line Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1947

This large-scale photo taken in 1947 shows the CP line 1 between Stockton (off the photo to the east) and Treesbank (off the photo to the west) where it crosses the north-flowing Souris River 2. The shadow of the bridge platform and of three supporting pillars 3 can be seen northeast of the actual bridge. Note that on flatland to the west, fences/hedges have been constructed 4 to protect against snowdrifts.

Figure 18.8: Railway Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1945

Figure 18.8: Railway Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1945

Figure 18.8

Vertical air photograph: A11124-15

Flight height: 12,400 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:10,200 (approx.)

Date: September 4, 1947

Location: Township 8; Range 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


18.9: Railway Line Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1974

This smaller-scale photo covers a smaller area than figure 18.8. The north-flowing Souris River 1 joins the southeast-flowing Assiniboine 2 just off the photo to the north. By this time (1974) the CP line had been long abandoned but its former location is obvious 3. The supporting pillars for the bridge across the Souris still exist, but the platform is gone 4. Also the protective fences no longer exist 5. Note also the route followed by PR 530 6 as it crosses Oak Creek 7, a Souris tributary.

Figure 18.9: Railway Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1974

Figure 18.9: Railway Abandonment Near Treesbank, 1974

Figure 18.9

Vertical air photograph: A23692-33

Flight height: 13,700; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: May 12, 1974

Location: Township 8; Range 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


18.10: The End of the Line at Lyleton

A spur line from a junction at Deloraine used to serve a string of small settlements in the extreme southwest of Manitoba, the most westerly of which was Lyleton (just off the photo to the east). Shown here is the end of this line 1—already abandoned in 1958—just west of Lyleton. Also seen are gravel roads 2 along some section lines.

In this flat, dry area, water supply and wind erosion are serious concerns. The water supply issue is dealt with in part by the construction of numerous dugouts 3 (rectangular, dark-toned areas). In an attempt to control wind erosion, land is divided into small fields 4 often with north/south 5 or east/west 6 field shelterbelts of trees. Two farms are protected by shelterbelts to their north and west 7.

Although flight lines for aerial photography are usually oriented north/south or east/west, perfection is not always achieved. In this case the east/west flight line digressed by several degrees from true, so east/west roads and north/south roads do not parallel the photo borders.

 

Figure 18.10: The End of the Line at Lyleton

Figure 18.10: The End of the Line at Lyleton

Figure 18.10

Vertical air photograph: A16273-9

Flight height: 10,350 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:18,100 (approx.)

Date: July 29, 1958

Locations: Township 1; Ranges 28 and 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/3 Gainsborough

 


18.11: The End of the Line at Miniota

Sometimes a branch line came to an end because it came up against a topographic barrier that was too difficult or too expensive to cross. Here a branch line 1 through Arrow River (off the photo to the east) ends at Miniota 2 on the east side of the major topographic barrier of the steep-sided Assiniboine Spillway 3. The main CN line 4 veers off to the north and follows the spillway 20 miles (32 km) north to St. Lazare before crossing it. There used to be a connection between the two lines east of Miniota 5. Also seen is PTH 83 6 which runs south through Miniota, crosses the Assiniboine spillway 7 and angles up the south wall 8, reducing the gradient. Other gravel roads follow section lines 9.

Figure 18.11: The End of the Line at Miniota

Figure 18.11: The End of the Line at Miniota

Figure 18.11

Vertical air photograph: A15528-25

Flight height: 20,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:37,300 (approx.)

Date: October 7, 1956

Location: Township 13; Ranges 26 and 27 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/3 Miniota


18.12: The End of the Line at Lenore

A branch line extended from Forrest to Lenore through Wheatland, Bradwardine, Harding, and Kenton. “The presence of the Assiniboine Valley [off the photo] just west of Lenore enforced the termination of the line at this point, despite hopes of some locals that the line would cross this glacial spillway and become a through line to the west.”[i] The Lenore extension opened in 1903, and the last train along it ran on August 7, 1980.

On this photo the line can be seen entering the village, Lenore 1, from the east 2 with a turning spur 3 just to the east of the hamlet. Protective fences have been constructed parallel to the line in several locations 4. At the time the photo was taken, Lenore still boasted a grain elevator 5, identified by its distinctive shadow shape. PR 259 6 bypasses the village to the west, and gravel roads follow some section lines 7.

Figure 18.12: The End of the Line at Lenore

Figure 18.12: The End of the Line at Lenore

 

Figure 18.12

Vertical air photograph: A16398-104

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: October 29, 1958

Location: Township 11; Range 24WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 6F/15 Virden

 

Notes

 

[i] Williams, A. and Everitt, J. “The End of the Line: The Life and Death of the Lenore Extension” in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People. eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt and C. Stadel. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press. 1996, 217-218.

 



18.13: Rail Yards at Rivers

In the heyday of the railway era in southern Manitoba, the larger settlements had a complex of sidings and sorting yards. This old (1948) photo shows the situation at Rivers 1. The CN line 2 enters from the south crossing the west-flowing Little Saskatchewan River 3 on a high bridge that throws a prominent shadow to the east 4. A complex of sidings 5 is seen on the south side of town. Numerous trucks 6 can be identified, and in the east is a round house 7, which was used for sorting and reorganizing trucks. A large grain elevator 8 throws a prominent shadow northwards. A spur line 9 (abandoned at the time of the photo) ran into a gravel pit 10 excavated into glacial outwash deposits 11 that display a characteristic fluted surface appearance.

PTH 25 12 crosses the Little Saskatchewan River and then runs along the southern edge of town 13. The large building north of the road is the town’s arena 14. To the east of it is the wide main street 15, and east of that PR 250 runs north out of town 16.

Since the photo was taken, a dam has been built across the Little Saskatchewan River near the eastern edge of the photo area 17. The resulting Lake Wahtopanah floods the valley to the east.

Figure 18.13: Rail Yards at Rivers

Figure 18.13: Rail Yards at Rivers

Figure 18.13

Vertical air photograph: A11731-66

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: September 5, 1948

Location: Township 12; Ranges 20 and 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers


18.14: Rail Yards at Brandon

Brandon owes its existence to the fact that Canadian Pacific decided to follow a route along the Assiniboine Valley and that a site on the south side of the westward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 was selected as a division point[i]. Seen here is the CP line 2 crossing the Assiniboine River 3 and entering Brandon from the east. The line spreads out into marshalling yards 4 on which numerous trucks can be seen, as well as a large round house 5[ii]. A long abandoned line 6 (even in 1958) can be seen in the northeast with a spur 7 leading into the buildings 8 of what was the Mental Health Centre. First Street 9 crosses the railway line and the Assiniboine River at an overpass 10. The irregular line cutting across the western edge of the photo 11 is a tear in the negative.

Figure 18.14: Rail Yards at Brandon

Figure 18.14: Rail Yards at Brandon

Figure 18.14

Vertical air photograph: A16429-78

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: October 29, 1958

Location: Township 10; Range 19W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon

Notes

[i] For an explanation of a division point see figure 12.11, note 1.

[ii] For a description of a round house see figure 8.42, note 1.



18.15: Transport Routes West of Brandon

This photo illustrates the abundance of route ways (some abandoned) west of Brandon—just off the photo to the east. The eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 is no longer used as a transport route, but for a short period in the late 19th century, before the railway era, it was a route followed by paddle steamers. Steamers carried passengers and goods from Winnipeg to Brandon and as far upstream as Fort Ellice.[i] The Little Saskatchewan River 2 which joins the Assiniboine from the north was never used for passenger transport, but logs were floated down it from the area now occupied by Riding Mountain National Park to the north, then along the Assiniboine to be assembled in the Snye (a branch of the river that is now blocked off) in Brandon, and then processed at a sawmill on the north bank of the river.

The CP railway line 3 runs east/west across the centre with another line roughly parallel to it 4. The two join just east of Kemnay 5 and then a line branches off to the southwest 6. In the south is the CN line 7 that is crossed by a long abandoned line 8—almost obliterated in places 9—leading southward.

As for roads, the most obvious one is the Trans-Canada Highway 10 that runs southwest across the Assiniboine Spillway. It is joined west of Kemnay by Highway 1A 11, leading out from Brandon. The pre-existing railway line necessitates a slight bend in the road 12; PR 459 13 runs along the base of the north bank of the Assiniboine spillway, just above flood level. Grand Valley Provincial Recreational Park 14 is located near the junction of PR 459 with the Trans-Canada Highway.

Figure 18.15: Transport Routes West of Brandon

Figure 18.15: Transport Routes West of Brandon

Figure 18.15

Vertical air photograph: A20470-67

Flight height: 21,590 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.73 mm

Scale: 1:40,900 (approx.)

Date: May 21, 1968

Location: Township 10; Ranges 19W1 and 20W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/16 Alexander

Notes

[i] Tyman, J. L. By Section, Township, and Range (Second Printing). Brandon: Brandon University. 1995, 32.



18.16: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1937 Situation

Railway line abandonment began early in southwest Manitoba and continues to the present.

The eastward-flowing Souris River 1 is incised into the floor of the steep-sided 2 glacial spillway. The abandoned settlement of Bunclody 3 was located south of the Souris River near the eastern edge of the photo. A railway angles down the wooded south side of the spillway 4, crosses the Souris on a high bridge 5, crosses the spillway floor 6, and then angles up the north side 7.

In addition to the railway line, the north/south trending PR 348 8 crosses the spillway and the Souris River, running diagonally across a small tributary creek valley.

Figure 18.16: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1937 Situation

Figure 18.16: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1937 Situation

Figure 18.16

Vertical air photograph: A5591-13

Flight height: 9,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:18,900 (approx.)

Date: July 18, 1937

Location: Townships 6 and 7; Ranges 19 and 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/9 Souris

                   


18.17: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1967 Situation

Thirty years later, the railway line is abandoned, probably several years before. However, the route it followed is obvious 1, although the bridge has disappeared 2. PR 348 can be seen more clearly than on the previous photo 3, and a loop that it followed on the south side of the river has been eliminated 4.

Figure 18.17: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1967 Situation

Figure 18.17: Railway Line Abandonment Near Bunclody, The 1967 Situation

Figure 18.17

Vertical air photograph: A19905-179

Flight height: 9,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Townships 6 and 7; Ranges 19 and 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/9 Souris


18.18: Railway Line Abandonment West of Elm Creek

The area shown is a region of wooded sand dunes, south of Portage la Prairie. Where woodland has been removed, the mottled appearance of the sandy soils 1 is plainly visible. The main CP line runs east/west 2 through the area between Elm Creek (off the photo to the east) and Haywood (off the photo to the west). The route of an abandoned north/south railway line is also visible especially where it cuts through woodland 3.

PTH 2 4 is located north of the CP line. It is elevated to prevent snow accumulation that necessitates numerous small bridges 5 or embankments across the ditches on either side of the road.

Note that shadows are thrown slightly south of west 6 indicating that the photo was taken early in the morning.

Figure 18.18: Railway Line Abandonment West of Elm Creek

Figure 18.18: Railway Line Abandonment West of Elm Creek

Figure 18.18

Vertical air photograph: A16575-32

Flight height: 8,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.34 mm

Scale: 1:16,500 (approx.)

Date: June 22, 1959

Location: Township 8; Range 5WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/  St. Claude


18.19: An Existing Railway Line and an Abandoned Line Near Minnedosa

The photo shows the westward-flowing Little Saskatchewan River 1 west of Minnedosa. The Canadian Pacific Railway 2 line out of Minnedosa (off the photo to the east) angles its way up the north side of the little Saskatchewan Valley. Somewhat less obvious is another railway line closer to the river 3. This line, abandoned by the time the photo was taken, crossed the Little Saskatchewan River in the east 4. Note also a gravel road 5, roughly parallel to the general river direction that crossed the abandoned line at a level crossing 6. Another gravel road follows east/west section lines in the south 7.

Note also severe soil erosion on cleared land both south of 8 and north of 9 the river.

Figure 18.19: An Existing Railway Line and an Abandoned Line Near Minnedosa

Figure 18.19: An Existing Railway Line and an Abandoned Line Near Minnedosa

Figure 18.19

Vertical air photograph: A16065-31

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: July 10, 1958

Location: Township 15; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam


18.20: Impressions Left by Abandoned Railway Lines in Southwest Manitoba

The area shown is northeast of Turtle Mountain with Wakopa Creek 1 draining north from “the mountain” eventually to enter Killarney Lake. The ghost town of Wakopa can be seen in the east 2.[i]

The line running northwest/southeast 3 was abandoned so long ago that it does not appear on a 1:250,000 map of the area compiled in 1963.[ii] The other line, more nearly east/west 4, is mapped as abandoned. Gravel roads follow section lines 5.

Figure 18.20: Impressions Left by Abandoned Railway Lines in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.20: Impressions Left by Abandoned Railway Lines in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.20

Vertical air photograph: A19903-116

Flight height: 9,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.14 mm

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: May 16, 1967

Location: Township: 1; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney

Notes

[i] Mulligan, H. and Ryder, W. Ghost Towns of Manitoba (Second Printing). Winnipeg: Great Plains Publications. 2004, see “Wakopa”, 123-127.

[ii] 62G Brandon.



18.21: Train and Transformer Station at Rosser

A feature of prairie trains is their enormous length. Shown here is the CP line 1 at Rosser 2, northwest of Winnipeg. A train on the line 3 is pulled by three engines 4 and is a mile (1.6 km) long. PR 221 out of Winnipeg 5 runs parallel to the railway line.

Another aspect of transport is the movement of electricity to southern markets from large power stations in northern Manitoba. Shown here is a complex of transformers and pylons at the Dorsey Converter Station 6 where DC from northern Manitoba is transformed into AC for distribution throughout the province. A spur line from the railway line leads into the area 7. Numerous pylons—identified from their shadows—can be seen 8; and by careful scrutiny of the original photo with a magnifying glass so too can power lines running between them 9.

Figure 18.21: Train and Transformer Station at Rosser

Figure 18.21: Train and Transformer Station at Rosser

Figure 18.21

Vertical air photograph: MB 95004-33

Flight height: 7,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.815 mm

Scale: 1:11,500 (approx.)

Date: May 14, 1995

Location: Township 12; Range 1E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg


18.22: Single Grain Elevator at Mentieth

Grain elevators involved in the storage and transport of grain are integrally associated with railway lines. At the peak of their development there were over 700 elevators across southern Manitoba, spread out along railway lines with one every 10 to 12 miles. Most have now been abandoned in favour of a few large concrete elevators with much larger gaps between them. The old wooden elevators had a distinctive tower-like shape—“the prairie sentinel.” On air photos these are most easily identified using the photo criteria of location/association—they are almost always beside railway lines—and shadow shape—tower-like with a pointed top.

Shown here is a single elevator 1 exhibiting the distinctive shadow shape on the CP line 2 at Mentieth northeast of Hartney. A siding 3 leads from the line to the elevator . Six railcars 4 can be seen, and there may be more hidden by the elevator’s shadow. Near the elevator, the line is protected from snowdrifts by parallel embankments 5.

Note also:

1)  Several dugouts 6 in this dry area.

2)  The peculiar pattern 7 resulting from a farmer cultivating fields to remove weeds.

3)  Shelterbelts can be seen north and west of farm buildings 8.

 

Figure 18.22: Single Grain Elevator at Mentieth

Figure 18.22: Single Grain Elevator at Mentieth

Figure 18.22

Vertical air photograph: A20811-83

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 7; Range 23WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/16 Souris

 


18.23: Two Grain Elevators at Dalny in the Souris Valley

The CP line 1 takes a large southward loop to traverse a gentle slope along the side of the Souris Glacial Spillway, the eastern bank of which 2 can be seen. At the early date when this photo was taken, Dalny warranted two elevators 3, identified by their location next to the railway line and distinctive shadow. An embankment 4 to the north protects the line near the elevators.

Figure 18.23: Two Elevators at Dalny in the Souris Valley

Figure 18.23: Two Elevators at Dalny in the Souris Valley

Figure 18.23

Vertical air photograph: A16390-95

Flight height: 10,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:18,100 (approx.)

Date: October 16, 1958

Location: Township 2; Range 26WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/2 Waskada


18.24: Grain Elevators at Brookdale

This high oblique photo taken in the early 1990s shows two elevators 1 on the east/west CP line 2 at Brookdale. The late summer photo was taken looking north across ripe grain fields 3 almost ready for harvesting; in fact a field in the right foreground 4 has already been swathed. The large building in the foreground 5 probably houses a hockey rink and a curling rink—on the right 6. It is protected by a shelterbelt of imported coniferous trees 7.

Figure 18.24: Grain Elevators at Brookdale

Figure 18.24: Grain Elevators at Brookdale

Figure 18.24

High oblique air photograph

Manitoba Pool 1992

Scale: Variable; greater at front

Location: Township 12; Range 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/4 Moore Park


18.25: Grain Elevators at Inglis

With the replacement of many small, closely-spaced wooden grain elevators by a few massive widely-spaced concrete elevators, it was essential to preserve at least a few of the old elevators as records of their past. This has been done at Inglis 1 at the end of a CP line that ran north from Russell. The line can be seen entering Inglis from the south 2 with turning spur to the east 3. Four elevators 4 identified from their location and shadow shape can be seen east of the village.[i] The two large buildings in the south are hockey 5 and curling rinks 6.

This is the first photo in a contract, details of which are given at the bottom of the photo. Contract 4520 was done for Manitoba Highways. The first line of photos, numbers 157-161 was taken flying north on May 13, 1995. The flight height was 13,049 feet a.s.l. and a camera with a lens of focal length 152.815 mm was used. The area shown is part of section 36, township 22, range 28WI. The scale is 1:12,000 approximately. The highway of interest was PR 592.

Figure 18.25: Grain Elevators at Inglis

Figure 18.25: Grain Elevators at Inglis

Figure 18.25

Vertical photograph: MB 95001-157

Flight height: 13,049 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.815 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May 13, 1995

Location: Township 23; Range 28W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis

Notes

[i] This line of elevators has been preserved and they are used as museums.



18.26: The Trans-Canada Highway West of Brandon

A flurry of road building occurred in Manitoba during the 1920s. In the south, many roads follow east/west or north/south lines determined by the DLS. However, roads cannot be completely independent of topography and are forced to digress from north/south or east/west.

The main east/west highway through Manitoba is the Trans-Canada Highway seen here west of Brandon where it follows a southwest route 1 across the Assiniboine Spillway 2. Further west it runs east/west along section lines 3 before swinging south 4, bypassing Alexander 5 and avoiding an old course of the Assiniboine 6. At the time the photo was taken, the Trans-Canada Highway was still an undivided highway.[i] In the east it is joined west of Kemnay 7 by highway 1A 8 out from Brandon, off the photo to the east.

Also seen are several existing and abandoned railway lines: the main CP line 9 runs through Alexander, and a spur line 10 leads southwest crossing the CN line 11. Note also the correction of almost 1 mile (1.6 km) at the boundary between townships 10 and 11 12.

Figure 18.26: The Trans-Canada Highway West of Brandon

Figure 18.26: The Trans-Canada Highway West of Brandon

Figure 18.26

Vertical air photograph: A21666-84

Flight height: 22,420 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:81,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 9, 10, and 11; Ranges 20 and 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/16 Alexander 

Notes

[i] The Trans-Canada Highway was officially opened in 1962 but the calibre of the highway varied from place to place. For details see Francis, D. A Road for Canada, The Illustrated Story of the Trans-Canada Highway.Vancouver: Stantin Atkins and Dosil Publishers, 2006.



18.27: The Trans-Canada Highway East of Brandon

With the exception of a few kilometres west of Virden, the Trans-Canada Highway is now twinned right across Manitoba. The stretch shown here 1 is just east of Brandon where the highway runs along the township line between townships 10 and 11 (note the correction of about 4125 feet [1257 m] between the two townships 2). A few vehicles can be seen progressing west in the north lane 3 and east in the south lane 4. There are no more than 10 vehicles on this 2½-mile (4 km) stretch of highway. Outsiders often question the need for a twinned highway with so little traffic. The need is related more to safety than ease of traffic flow; head on collisions are common on undivided highways during the winter. A service road 5 leads to two farms 6 north of the highway and gravel roads lead south along section lines 7. The main CP line runs across the south 8 with a spur line leading off to the northwest 9—passing the small settlement of Chater, 10 now a Brandon bedroom community. A group of trailer homes near the centre 11 is protected by shelterbelts 12. The light-toned zone running across the centre 13 is the north bank of a former Assiniboine distributary.

Figure 18.27: The Trans-Canada Highway East of Brandon

Figure 18.27: The Trans-Canada Highway East of Brandon

Figure 18.27

Vertical air photograph: A25396-161

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:16,900 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon


18.28: The Yellowhead Route Near Russell

The Yellowhead Route, a more northerly route across Canada than the Trans-Canada Highway, diverges from the latter west of Portage la Prairie, then passes by Neepawa, Minnedosa, and Russell and on into Saskatchewan. Shown here is PTH 45 1 that follows the township line between townships 20 and 21, then bypasses Russell 2 to the south 3 and becomes Highway 16 4 (part of the Yellowhead Route) to the west. PTH 41 5 from the south, bypasses Russell to the west and becomes PTH 83 to the north 6. Both PTH 41 and PTH 83 follow north/south section lines.

Russell’s location at the intersection of north/south and east/west routes has aided its economic development (population of 1428 in 2006).

Also visible are railway lines: the CP line 7 runs through Russell and then north to Inglis; the CN line 8 enters Russell from the east and runs northwest to Shellmouth.

Figure 18.28: The Yellowhead Route Near Russell

Figure 18.28: The Yellowhead Route Near Russell

Figure 18.28

Vertical air photograph: A21753-10

Flight height: 24,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.37 inches

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 30, 1970

Location: Townships 20 and 21; Ranges 27, 28 and 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis


18.29: Highway 2 Near Wawanesa

Two other linear features can be seen, one in the north and the other through the centre of the area. The former is only visible in the dark-toned wooded area 16 and is followed by a power line. The latter can be seen crossing wooded areas south of Wawanesa 17 but also across agricultural fields 18. This is the route of an underground oil pipeline. It is visible in the treed areas because trees had to be cut down for a trench to be excavated resulting in a lighter tone. In the agricultural fields the difference in tone results from interference with the topsoil during excavation.

The Souris River 1 flows northeast across the area, encircling Wawanesa 2 and joining the Assiniboine River just off the photo to the north.

PTH 2 3, a main east/west road in southern Manitoba, crosses the area mainly following section lines in the east 4. The north/south PTH 18 5 joins PTH 2 from the south. Note the curve 6 where it passes from township 6 to township 7; in township 6 it runs along section lines and then veers east to run along half section lines in township 7.

Several other linear features can be seen. The CN line in the southeast 7 used to wind its way down a meander neck 8 into Wawanesa, across the Souris River 9, up the side of the valley 10, and then northwest 11 to Brandon. Building a railway line into Wawanesa, surrounded by steep slopes, was a major undertaking. Despite that it did not last long (built in 1889 and abandoned in 1984). In the north the CP line 12 crosses the Souris 13, then runs through Treesbank 14, and intersects the CP line at Methven Junction 15.

Figure 18.29: Highway 2 Near Wawanesa

Figure 18.29: Highway 2 Near Wawanesa

Figure 18.29

Vertical air photograph: A21666-210

Flight height: 22,240 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:77,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 6, 7 and 8; Ranges 16 and 17WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa

 


18.30: Highway 2 in Southwest Manitoba

The photo shows the wooded valley of the Souris River 1 in the southeast with the wooded Lauder Sand Hills 2 in the southwest. In the north is Plum Creek 3 that has been straightened in the west 4.

PTH 2 5 runs generally east/west across the area. It follows the township line between townships 7 and 8 in the east before turning south for 2 ½ miles (4 km) 6 before again turning south of west 7 past Deleau 8. PTH 21, a north/south road 9, crosses Plum Creek 10 before joining PTH 2 which it follows west 11 before branching off to the south 12. A bend in the road occurs at the township 6/7 boundary 13. The correction at this township line is almost one mile to the west 14. As it moves north PTH 21 jogs a short distance east 15 to the nearest north/south section line.

Railway lines are also visible. The CP line is visible in the east 16 with a spur leading southwest to Hartney 17. In the west it parallels PTH 2 18 and is most visible where the two routes digress at Deleau 8. Another linear feature roughly parallel to PTH 2 and the CP line can be seen further north 19, visible where it cuts through dark-toned woodland; it is the route followed by a power line.

Figure 18.30: Highway 2 in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.30: Highway 2 in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.30

Vertical air photograph: A21666-201

Flight height: 22,240 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 6, 7 and 8; Ranges 21, 22 and 23WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/10 Pipestone

 


18.31: Highway 3 at Pilot Mound

PTH 3 1 is the most southerly east/west route in Manitoba. Several north/south sections break its east/west progress. This high oblique photo taken looking southwest shows PTH 3 bypassing Pilot Mound 2 to the southwest. The CP railway line 3 passes through the town on its way southwest to Crystal City. A single elevator 4 still existed in 1984. Other common features of prairie towns are a round-roofed building 5 housing a rink; a racetrack 6 inside which is a baseball diamond 7; a flat-roofed building, probably a school 8; and a large building in the northwest 9, probably a seniors residence or possibly a motel?

Figure 18.31: Highway 3 at Pilot Mound

Figure 18.31: Highway 3 at Pilot Mound

Figure 18.31

High oblique photo: Manitoba Pool

Flight height:  focal length:

Scale variable; greater in the foreground

Date: pre 1984

Location: Township 3; Range 11WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/2 Pilot Mound


18.32: Highway 10 Near Minnedosa

PTH 10 is a major north/south road in Manitoba starting at the U.S. border, south of Boissevain and passing through or by Boissevain, Brandon, Dauphin, Swan River, and the Pas to finish at Flin Flon. Shown here is a section of the road 1 where it bypasses Minnedosa 2. Before construction of the bypass in 1967, traffic had to pass through the centre of the town. In the south PTH 10 follows the range line between 18 and19WI 3. It veers east 4 and then north again 5 to cross the Little Saskatchewan River 6 necessitating substantial road cuts 7 (light-toned). Further north it reverts to a route along north/south section lines 8. South of Minnedosa it is joined by Highway 16 (part of the Yellowhead Route) from Neepawa in the east 9. The two follow the same route around Minnedosa then Highway 16 veers off to the northwest 10. Major roads now bypass most small communities; this is true of Basswood 11 in the northwest corner of the photo. Note also in the west, the north/south PR 270 12. At the township line between townships 14 and 15, it has a curve 13 caused by the correction line between the townships. Here the correction is about ¾ mile (1207 metres) to the west 14 but PR 270 jogs ¼ mile (402 metres) to the east to follow the nearest north/south section line 15.

Also visible is the CP line; it enters Minnedosa from the east 16, passes through town 17, and then climbs up the north side of the Little Saskatchewan Valley 18. It then runs parallel to Highway 16 and is only clearly visible where it runs through Basswood 19.

 

Figure 18.32: Highway 10 Near Minnedosa

Figure 18.32: Highway 10 Near Minnedosa

Figure 18.32

Vertical air photograph: A21748-65

Flight height: 23,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.37 inches

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Ranges 18 and 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/4 Moore Park

 


18.33: Highway 10 Near Pine River

East of Duck Mountain PTH 10 1 follows the general north-northwest/south-southeast trend of the topography resulting from the deposition of strandlines by Lake Agassiz as it retreated eastward from Duck Mountain 2. In the east is low-lying marshy land 3 drained by rivers—Pine River 4 being one of them—that flow east to Sagamace Bay off Lake Winnipegosis. Between the “mountain” and the marshes is a narrow strip of agricultural land on the west side of which are three transport routes. PTH 10 (light-toned) is the most obvious, passing west of Pine River 5, in the past a forestry oriented community. The CN railway line 6 passes through Pine River. A power line 7 is located between the road and the railway line, and, as is usually the case, it is clearest where it passes through wooded land. PR 271 8 runs east/west along the township line between townships 32 and 33. Just north of it is the faint line of another power line 9 which may join the line previously mentioned.

Figure 18.33: Highway 10 Near Pine River

Figure 18.33: Highway 10 Near Pine River

Figure 18.33

Vertical air photograph: A21810-48

Flight height: 24,350 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.22 mm

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: August 4, 1970

Location: Townships 32 and 33; Ranges 21, 22 and 23W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain

                    1:50,000 62N/16 Sagamace Bay


18.34: Highway 5 in the South

Although roads in southern Manitoba tend to be straight, a result of the DLS system, in some instances they are deflected by the topography. PTH 5 is a prominent south/north route, extending north from the U.S. border, past Carberry and Neepawa, and then along the east side of Riding Mountain before turning west through Dauphin and Roblin. It is shown here 1 where it bypasses Cartwright 2 to the west before jogging east one mile 3 to cross 4 and then run alongside Badger Creek 5. Where it crosses the line between townships 2 and 3, it jogs west 6 about ½ mile (804 metres) the correction between townships 2 and 3 before continuing north across the Pembina River 7. In the west a gravel road 8 bypasses Holmfield 9 and then jogs east a half mile (804 metres) 10 at the township line. PTH 3 11 runs east/west south of Cartwright.

Also seen is the CP line 12 through Cartwright and Holmfield leading to Killarney (off the photo to the west). A long abandoned line 13 is barely visible running north-northeast from Holmfield.

Figure 18.34: Highway 5 in the South

Figure 18.34: Highway 5 in the South

Figure 18.34

Vertical air photo: A21749-54

Flight height: 24,520 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.29 mm

Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 2 and 3; Ranges 14 and 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/3 Holmfield


18.35: Highway 5 and Other Routes Near McCreary

In this area near McCreary, PTH 5 1 is located on the lowland east of Riding Mountain, the wooded, dark-toned area in the west 2. It follows north/south section lines except where it bends around McCreary 3. PTH 50 runs east/west along the 20/21-township line 4 and continues west of PTH 5 as PR 361 5 leading to the Mount Agassiz ski area (off the photo to the west). PTH 19 6 runs along the southern edge of the area and into Riding Mountain National Park by a series of hairpin bends 7 unusual in Manitoba.

Also visible are two railway lines entering from the south 8 and southeast 9 and joining south of McCreary 10 to continue in a north-northwest direction 11 following the general trend of Lake Agassiz strandlines, some of which are prominent in the southwest 12.

Drainage ditches are also prominent linear features 13, generally leading north into Turtle River that empties into Dauphin Lake.

Figure 18.35: Highway 5 and Other Routes Near McCreary

Figure 18.35: Highway 5 and Other Routes Near McCreary

Figure 18.35

Vertical air photograph: A21808-48

Flight height: 24,400 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.34 inches

Scale: 1:84,500 (approx.)

Date: August 6, 1970

Location: Townships 20 and 21; Ranges 18W1 and 19W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/14 McCreary


18.36: Power Line in Riding Mountain National Park

The routes followed by power lines are most easily seen on air photos where they traverse woodland. The cutting down of trees to avoid obstruction leaves a readily identified scar along which the line passes; left of centre on this photo is a north/south power line 1 through Riding Mountain National Park following the range line between ranges 19 and 20WI. The route bends 2 to the east at the junction of townships 20 and 21. Using a magnifying lens with the original photo, one can see poles that carry two lines 3. To the east the very light-toned line 4 is the Lake Audy Road, a gravel road that connects Lake Audy (off the photo to the west) with PTH 10 (off the photo to the east). The wider, slightly darker line 5 that crosses the road is possibly the route followed by—or to be followed by—another power line, although no supporting poles can be seen. Note the dark tone of coniferous woodland in the west 6 and the triangular shape of individual coniferous tree shadows 7.

Figure 18.36: Power Line in Riding Mountain National Park

Figure 18.36: Power Line in Riding Mountain National Park

Figure 18.36

Vertical air photograph: A20587-29

Flight height: 10,270 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.47 mm

Scale: 1:15,600 (approx.)

Date: May 16, 1968

Location: Townships 20 and 21; Ranges 19 and 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/16 Whitewater Lake

                    1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain National Park


18.37: Power Line Near Treesbank

The direction followed by a power line 1 is very obvious on this photo of an area near the junction of the Souris 2 and Assiniboine 3 rivers. It is clearest where it cuts through woodland 4, and it does in fact continue to the southeast 5, but it cannot be seen on the air photo. Also shown is the CP line 6 and PR 453 7 through Treesbank 8. Note also an abandoned channel of the Souris 9 and a shelterbelt of coniferous trees 10 identified by their dark tone and pointed shadows 11.

Figure 18.37: Power Line Near Treesbank

Figure 18.37: Power Line Near Treesbank

Figure 18.37

Vertical air photograph: A23692-35

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: May 12, 1974

Location: Township 8; Range 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


18.38: Power Line Near Deleau

Usually the interpreter has to rely on locating a linear clearing in trees in order to determine the direction followed by a power line. This is the case in the northwest 1 and northeast 2 of this area where the route cuts through deciduous woodland. However, by carefully inspecting the area between the woodland areas 3, it is possible to identify not only the poles carrying the lines (from their shadows) 4 but also to see three light-toned strands 5 which are the actual lines.

South of the power line is the CP railway line 6 with sidings 7 at Deleau 8. East of the settlement is a shelterbelt protecting a provincial campsite 9. This is the first photo of a contract, the details of which are given in the bottom right corner 10.

Figure 18.38: Power Line Near Deleau

Figure 18.38: Power Line Near Deleau

Figure 18.38

Vertical air photograph: A20288-1

Flight height: 9,330 feet; lens focal length: 152.17 mm

Scale: 1:15,300 (approx.)

Date: October 30, 1967

Location: Township 7; Range 23WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/10 Pipestone


18.39: Transport Routes in Northern Manitoba

The photo shows an area about 35 miles (56.3 km) southwest of Thompson close to Pisew Falls Provincial Wayside Park. On it three transport routes are visible. In the centre is PTH 6 1 that runs north from Winnipeg, through the Interlake area to Grand Rapids and then north to Thompson. Several cleared areas on either side of the road 2 are probably associated with its construction, one of them 3 north of Soab Creek 4; flowing from Soab Lake 5 is a gravel pit with buildings in it 6. West of the road is a less straight railway line 7 on which a train can be seen in the south 8. To the east is a cleared area followed by a power line 9 that runs south to Winnipeg.

Figure 18.39: Transport Routes in Northern Manitoba

Figure 18.39: Transport Routes in Northern Manitoba

Figure 18.39

Vertical air photograph: 7810 00-063

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale 1:16,000 (approx.)

Date: 1978

Location: Township 72; Range 7WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 63O Nelson House

                    1:50,000 63O/1 Halfway Lake


18.40: Oil Storage and Pipelines in Southwest Manitoba

Manitoba has 11 small oilfields located in the southwest, the first of which to be exploited was the Daly field beginning in 1951.[i] Shown here is part of the area of Daly field crossed by Pipestone Creek 1 with the hamlet of Cromer 2 on its southern bank. A storage facility 3 is seen north of Cromer. The light-toned linear feature 4 leading eastwards is the route of a pipeline, and the dark-toned area leading northwest 5 is probably another one. A third line (light-toned) 6 is just visible leading to the southwest. It crosses an old abandoned railway line 7 that ran southeast to Reston. Another abandoned railway line is just visible 8 on the south side of Pipestone Creek crossing it 9 in the east.

Figure 18.40: Oil Storage and Pipelines in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.40: Oil Storage and Pipelines in Southwest Manitoba

Figure 18.40

Vertical air photograph: A20471-7

Flight height: 21,900 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:39,600 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Township 9; Ranges 28 and 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/11 Reston

Notes

[i] For details see Young, H. R. in “Mining and Extractive Industries in Manitoba” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel op. cit. 1996, 237-250.


 


18.41: Route of a Gas Pipeline South of Rapid City

Oil and gas pipelines are visible on air photos because the excavation needed to bury the pipeline rearranges the topsoil and drainage resulting in a different tone than the surroundings. A light-toned line in the south 1 indicates the route of a gas pipeline, even extending into Lake Wahtopanah 2. The line carries gas from Alberta to Sarnia. Lines are as straight as possible but usually do not follow the lines of the DLS system.

Also seen are three abandoned railway lines: one loops south of Rapid City 3; another runs just north of the Little Saskatchewan River 4; and a third 5 veers off to the northwest. PTH 24 passes through Rapid City 6 and leads westward to Oak River (off the map to the west).

Note also 1) a small dam on the Little Saskatchewan River 7 that produces a reservoir 8 which is used as a recreation site; and 2) numerous small sloughs in this area underlain by ground moraine, ranging in tone from dark grey 9 to almost white 10, a result of specular reflection.

Figure 18.41: Route of a Gas Pipeline South of Rapid City

Figure 18.41: Route of a Gas Pipeline South of Rapid City

Figure 18.41

Vertical air photograph: A20471-237

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,900 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Townships 12 and 13; Ranges 19 and 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

 


18.42: Oil Pipeline West of Wawanesa

The oil pipeline route is seen as a straight light-toned line in the south 1. Note the bend in the east 2 so that the line could cross a road at a sharp angle without disturbing too much of the road surface.

Two abandoned railway lines are also very clear: the CN line trending northwest/southeast 3 and the CP line trending northeast/southwest 4 that intersect at Methven Junction 5. A single elevator, identified by its shadow shape 6, is located at Banting on the CP line. PTH 2 7 cuts across the southern edge.

The land shown is flat fertile agricultural land developed on lakebed sediments. By the time the photo was taken (mid-October) crops had been harvested, resulting in light-toned fields with distinctive patterns 8. Some have been cultivated in preparation for next year’s crop, resulting in very dark tones 9. Notice that on this fall photo, deciduous trees along a small creek in the centre have changed colours, resulting in a light tone 10.

Figure 18.42: Oil Pipeline West of Wawanesa

Figure 18.42: Oil Pipeline West of Wawanesa

Figure 18.42

Vertical air photograph

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 151.87 mm

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: October 11, 1966

Location: Townships 7 and 8; Ranges 17 and 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa

 


18.43: Gas Pipeline South of Hamiota

This photo shows the standard checkerboard pattern produced by the sections of the DLS with two prominent east/west lines cutting across the system. In the north 1 is the route of a gas pipeline, its light tone standing out against the darker tone of surrounding soils. Note the bend so that the line crosses the road at a sharp angle 2. In the south is the CN railway line (abandoned) 3 passing south of Oakner in the west 4.

Figure 18.43: Gas Pipeline South of Hamiota

Figure 18.43: Gas Pipeline South of Hamiota

Figure 18.43

Vertical air photograph: A20471-228

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:39,000 (approx.)

Date: May 22, 1968

Location: Township 13; Range 23W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/2 Hamiota


18.44: Gas Pipeline Near Miniota

This high-level, small-scale air photo shows a westward extension 1 of the pipeline route shown in figure 18.43. It crosses the Assiniboine Spillway 2 north of Miniota 3 and is visible as a light-toned streak in the west 4. In the east where it runs close to a railway line 5 and a gravel road 6, its location is not so obvious. However, using a magnifying lens on the original photo, one can locate it between the CN line and an east/west gravel road where it shows up as a very light-toned streak 7.

Note also:

1)  The CP railway line 8 in the southwest;

2)  An east/west railway line 9 that leads west to Miniota cutting through the middle of sections;

3)  The north/south PTH 83 10 that runs mainly along the range line between ranges 26 and 27WI except where it angles down the south side of the Assiniboine Spillway 11; and

4)  East/west PTH 24 12 joining PTH 83 just south of Miniota.

Figure 18.44: Gas Pipeline Near Miniota

Figure 18.44: Gas Pipeline Near Miniota

Figure 18.44

Vertical air photograph: A21748-109

Flight height: 23,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.611 mm

Scale: 1:81,200 (approx.)

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 13 and 14; Ranges 26 and 27W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/3 Miniota

 


18.45: Airfield at Hartney

Airfields

During the second half of the 20th century, flying became a very important method of transport—both of people and goods—in Manitoba. This was particularly true of the north where some settlements could be reached only by air. Landing facilities ranging from single gravel strips on individual farms to Winnipeg International Airport with multiple runways are readily identified on air photos. Many small Manitoba communities supported airfields, usually located a few miles outside the built-up area. These had a characteristic triangular arrangement of runways; one east/west, one northwest/southeast, and one northwest/southeast to offer the best possible combination for wind conditions.

The airfield 1 is located about 1½ miles (2.4 km) south of Hartney 2 and is reached by a gravel road 3 from PTH 21 4. Runways are approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km) long. Note also

1) Northwest/southeast CN line passing south of Hartney 5;

2)  Northeast/southwest CP line passing through Hartney 6; and

3)  PTH 21 bypassing Hartney 7 with a jog at the correction line between townships 6 and 7 8.

Figure 18.45: Airfield at Hartney

Figure 18.45: Airfield at Hartney

Figure 18.45

Vertical air photograph: A24987-186

Flight height: 16,783 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.36 inches

Scale: 1:53,700 (approx.)

Date: July 18, 1978

Location: Townships 6 and 7; Range 23 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney


18.46: Airfield at Carberry

The airfield 1 at Carberry 2 (abandoned in 1960) was located about a mile (1.6 km) south of the town. As at Hartney there are three runway directions, but in this case the east/west runway 3 is in the north (the reverse of the situation at Hartney). Also in this case there are two runways in each direction, ranging in length from 0.5 to 0.6 miles (0.8-0.95 km) long. Various airport-related buildings are seen in the southwest 4. This area is now occupied by McCain Foods Ltd that employs about 500 people (mostly local) and ships millions of tons of potato products all over the world. Potatoes are grown—mostly under irrigation--on the Assiniboine Delta.

Note also the east/west CP line 5 that runs south of Carberry with trucks on a siding 6 and the north/south CN line 7 with a spur leading to the airfield 8.

Figure 18.46: Airfield at Carberry

Figure 18.46: Airfield at Carberry

Figure 18.46

Vertical air photograph

Flight height: 11,225 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:20,400 (approx.)

Date: August 23, 1965

Location: Township 10; Range 14WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/14 Carberry


18.47: Airfield at Souris

The airfield 1 at Souris is located about 2½ miles (4.0 km) east of town. It has the same general arrangement as at Carberry, with two runways in each direction 2 about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) long. Airport-related buildings are located to the south 3.

Note also:

PTH 2 4 that follows the township line between townships 7 and 8; the CP line 5 that crosses PTH 2; and the route followed by a trans-continental pipeline 6.

Figure 18.47: Airfield at Souris

Figure 18.47: Airfield at Souris

Figure 18.47

Vertical air photograph: A24519-222

Flight height: 26,200 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 153.22 mm

Scale: 1:49,500 (approx.)

Date: August 1, 1976

Location: Township 8; Range 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/9 Souris

 


18.48: Airfield at Neepawa

The airfield 1 at Neepawa 2 is located about 1.5 miles (2.5 km) west of the town. It too has a triangular shape with three runways 3, the “east/west” one 4 being slightly skewed off the cardinal direction. Runways are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometres) long. Terminal buildings 5 approached from Highway 16 6 are located to the southeast.

Note also

1)  East/west CP railway line 7 with a half-mile long (0.8 km) train on it 8; and

2)  North/south CN lines 9 that runs west of Neepawa

Figure 18.48: Airfield at Neepawa

Figure 18.48: Airfield at Neepawa

Figure 18.48

Vertical air photograph: A18622-110

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6.0 inches

Scale: 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: September 15, 1964

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa

 


18.49: Location of the Airfield at Rivers

The airfield 1 at Rivers 2 located 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southwest of the town had a different function from those shown in figures 18.45 to 18.48. During World War II, it was one of several airfields across the prairies involved in the Commonwealth Air Training Program. At these fields flyers from the Commonwealth were trained for air service. The flat landscape and abundance of space made the prairies ideal for this function. After the war Rivers remained for several years an RCAF base before it was closed in the early 1960s.

The airfield has a skewed triangular shape much like those shown in figures 18.45 to 18.48 except that two runways, east/west 3 and northwest/southeast 4 are considerably longer at 1.1 miles (1.8 km). Terminal buildings are located to the northeast 5, and beyond them are small buildings 6 that used to house military personnel.

Note also

1)  CN line 7 that passes through Rivers;

2)  East/west PTH 25 8;

3)  North/south PR 250 9 with a curved route 10 down the north side of the Assiniboine Spillway;

4)  Dam across the Little Saskatchewan River 11 that produces Lake Wahtopanah 12; and

5)  Unusually small fields 13 with north/south shelterbelts south 14 and west 15 of the airfield.

Figure 18.49: Location of the Airfield at Rivers

Figure 18.49: Location of the Airfield at Rivers

Figure 18.49

Vertical air photograph: A21666-16

Flight height: 23,170 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.5 inches

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Township 11 and 12; Ranges 20 and 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

 


18.50: Rivers Airport

This old (1948) air photo shows part of the Rivers airfield when it was still active. The southeast end of the main runway that ran northwest/southeast is visible 1. Northeast of the runway are several large hangers 2 for storage and repair of planes. An even larger building further east is probably an arena 3. North of this are buildings with an H-shaped plan 4, probably barracks, with numerous small buildings to the north 5, probably single family dwellings.

Note also the following:

1)  PTH 25 6 paralleled by a long abandoned railway line 7 on which is an elevator 8 identified by its shadow shape. A spur line 9 leads southwest to sidings 10 with railcars on them 11.

2)  This area is northwest of the misfit Little Saskatchewan River 12 with a large valley. The valley side is dissected by numerous gullies 13. Serious soil erosion 14 occurs in some fields cleared for agriculture.

Figure 18.50: Rivers Airport

Figure 18.50: Rivers Airport

Figure 18.50

Vertical air photograph: A11731-147

Flight height: 12,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 8 inches

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: September 5, 1948

Location: Township 12; Range 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

 


18.51: Airfields Near Brandon

This high-level, small-scale photo shows two airfields north of Brandon, both of which have the characteristic triangular form. In the northeast is the long abandoned field at Chater 1 with three runways about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) long. In the northwest is the still existing Brandon airport 2 which has the triangular shape, but also has a lengthened east/west runway about one mile (1.6 km) long 3 to accommodate larger planes. Air service to Brandon is a “hot” local issue; for a time it was possible to fly direct to Calgary and Toronto, but now passengers have to get to Winnipeg before flying to more distant locations.

Note also:

1)  The Assiniboine River 4 leading off to the southeast;

2)  The Trans-Canada Highway 5 that in the west runs along the township line between townships 10 and 11, but swings north in the east 6 to avoid Douglas Marsh 7 located in the route of a former Assiniboine distributary cross the Assiniboine Delta;

3)  PTH 10 8 that runs north/south with a jog at the 10/11 township line 9;

4)  PR 457 10 that heads to Shilo off the photo to the east; and

5)  The CP line 11 that runs through Douglas station 12 and into Brandon 13, and the CN line 14 that runs into Brandon from the southeast.

Figure 18.51: Airfields Near Brandon

Figure 18.51: Airfields Near Brandon

Figure 18.51

Vertical air photograph: A21666-80

Flight height: 22,420 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 9, 10 and 11; Ranges 17, 18 and 19 W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

 


18.52: Brandon Airport

Originally the airport at Brandon had the characteristic triangular shape, but in order to accommodate larger planes the east/west runway 1 has been lengthened to about 1 mile (1.6 km). Various terminal buildings 2 are seen south of the runway. Brandon Airport was used in the Commonwealth Air Training Program: a museum dedicated to the program is now housed in one of the old hangers.

Note also the following:

1)  At the time of the photo the Trans-Canada Highway 3 was twinned only to just beyond Eighteenth Street 4. Eighteenth Street is also PTH 10; it continues to the north one mile further east 5. The bend in the road 6 is to accommodate the correction between townships 10 and 11. The correction is about 4,200 feet (1280 m) to the west 7, but PTH 10 swings east to the range line between ranges 18 and 19 8;

2)  An abandoned railway line in the east 9 can be seen;

3)  There is a campground 10 for tourists traveling along the Trans-Canada Highway;

4)  A trailer park 11 near the edge of the built-up area of Brandon (off the photo to the south) is visible; and

5)  A drive-in cinema 12--one of about 300 that used to exist in Canada-- was still in use when the photo was taken.

Figure 18.52: Brandon Airport

Figure 18.52: Brandon Airport

Figure 18.52

Vertical air photograph: A25397-239

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:16,700

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Townships 10 and 11; Ranges 18 and 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

 


18.53: Airport Near Portage la Prairie

The airport for Portage la Prairie is located 3 miles (4.8 km) south of town. It is similar to that at Rivers in that it has a military connection, For 50 years it was home to the Canadian Airforce but all the assets were taken over in 1990 by the Southport Group that uses it for a variety of purposes including aviation and aerospace training. The original triangle of runways 1, with runways 0.5 miles (0.8 km) long, has been expanded to include two northwest/southeast runways 2 1.25 miles (2 km) long, the southern of which 3 is much wider than the other. Hangers 4, administrative buildings 5, barracks 6, and a racetrack 7 are seen to the north. Planes can be seen on the taxiing area south of the buildings, nine small ones in the east 8 and four larger ones in the west 9.

Figure 18.53: Airport Near Portage la Prairie

Figure 18.53: Airport Near Portage la Prairie

Figure 18.53

Vertical photograph: MB96001-162

Flight height: 7,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.096 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May 27, 1996

Location: Township 11; Range 6WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G Portage la Prairie


18.54: Airport at The Pas

The airport at The Pas is different from those shown previously (figures 18.45 to 18.53). In this area of central Manitoba, open flat land is not as easy to find as it is in the south. Consequently the location of this field is similar to the location of airports of major cities in that it is located far from the community it serves. The Pas airport 1 is at least 15 miles (24 km) northeast of town on the south shore of Clearwater Lake 2 reached by PR 287 3. Also the triangular shape is missing. Here there are two runways one trending west-northwest/east southeast 4 and the other northwest/southeast 5, the longer of the two. Terminal buildings 6 are located east of the latter. Two large planes 7 and two small planes 8 can be seen on the taxiing area near the terminal buildings.

Note also the sewage lagoon 9 located north of the airport.

Figure 18.54: Airport at The Pas

Figure 18.54: Airport at The Pas

Figure 18.54

Vertical air photograph: MB92016-55 PR 287

Flight height:   lens focal length: 152.031 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May, 1992

Location: Township 57; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F The Pas

                    1:50,000 62F/14 The Pas


18.55: Airport at Churchill

Planes and airports are crucial to the well being of settlements in northern Manitoba. Although a railway line services Churchill, most visitors arrive by plane. The airport 1 is located about 4 miles (6.4 km) east of town just south of the Hudson Bay shoreline 2. There are two runways, one trending east-northeast/west-southwest 3 and a longer one—at least 2 miles (3.2 km) long—north-northwest/south-southeast 4. Fuel storage tanks are seen in the angle between the two runways 5. To the north are terminal buildings 6 and the barrack-like buildings 7 of Fort Churchill.

Figure 18.55: Airport at Churchill

Figure 18.55: Airport at Churchill

Figure 18.55

Vertical air photograph: A22955-18

Flight height: 17,600 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.682 mm

Scale: 1:35,000 (approx.)

Date: August 8, 1972

Location: 58º 45'N, 98º 05'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54L Churchill

1:50,000 54L/16 Churchill


18.56: Airport at Lynn Lake

The airport at Lynn Lake 1—at one stage an important mining community—is located west of town. There are two runways, one east/west 2 and a longer one (0.8-0.9 miles [1.3-1.4 km]) north/south 3. The airport is reached by PR 394 4 from which a branch 5 leads to Burge Lake Provincial Recreational Park 6 with camping facilities.

Note also

1)  PR 391 7 that leads to Leaf Rapids;

2)  A railway line from the south 8 with railcars located on it 9;

3)  A large open pit mine in the south 10; and

4)  A large waste area 11 east of the built-up area of Lynn Lake.

Figure 18.56: Airport at Lynn Lake

Figure 18.56: Airport at Lynn Lake

Figure 18.56

Vertical air photograph: A24142-122

Flight height: 16,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.670 mm

Scale: 1:30,000 (approx.)

Date: July 11, 1975

Location: Township 90 and 91; Range 23WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 64C Granville Lake

                    1:50,000 64C/15 Cockeram Lake

 


18.57: Landing Strip at Shamattawa

Shamattawa First Nation on Gods River 1 in the extreme northeast of Manitoba is one of the most isolated communities in Manitoba. It can be reached by a winter road running east from PR 280 near Gillam and by air. Shown here is the west-flowing Gods River in the south with the north/south trending landing strip 2 (at least 0.8 miles—1.3 km long) to the north. Terminal buildings 3 are located west of the runway with the main body of the community further west. The community has a central area of large buildings 4 that probably include a band council building, a school, and a church. Within this area is an outdoor hockey rink 5 with condominium-like buildings 6 to the west. Individual houses are located along three straight streets 7 as well as close to the river 8. Very obvious on the photo is a seemingly haphazard system of paths 9. The large dark-toned square areas 10 in the west are sewage lagoons. Despite an abundance of surface water, provision of a reliable adequate water supply and of an efficient sewage treatment system has been a problem for many northern communities.

Figure 18.57: Landing Strip at Shamattawa

Figure 18.57: Landing Strip at Shamattawa

Figure 18.57

Vertical air photograph: MH92999401-61 L-2

Flight height:    lens focal length: 153.79 mm

Scale: 1:10,000 (approx.)

Date: July 6, 1992

Location of strip: 55º 52'N, 92º 04'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 53 N Gods River

                    1:50,000 53N/16 Shamattawa


18.58: Landing Strip at Ilford

Ilford 1 is a small community on the Hudson Bay Railway Line that can be seen angling across the southern part of this area 2. It is the location of War Lake First Nation that can be seen north of the line 3. The airstrip in the southwest 4 trending east/west is about 0.8 miles (0.9 km) long. It has two small terminal buildings 5 located to the north and is connected to the community by a road 6. In the northeast is a clearing followed by a hydro line 7 that runs southwest from Kettle Generating Station on the Nelson River off the photo to the northeast. One function of the landing strip is probably to supply maintenance materials for the power line.

The lake in the west is Moose Nose Lake 8 that drains northeast to the Nelson River. Sewage lagoons can be seen north of the settlement 9. The light-toned linear area to the west 10 may be the route of a buried pipeline to the lake.

Figure 18.58: Landing Strip at Ilford

Figure 18.58: Landing Strip at Ilford

Figure 18.58

Vertical air photograph: MH867067409-113

Flight height 10,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.031 mm

Scale: 1:20,000 (approx.)

Date: October 3, 1982

Location: Township 81; Range 12E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54D Kettle Rapids

                    1:50,000 54D/4 Ilford

 


18.59: Location of Winnipeg International Airport

Winnipeg International Airport 1, the only true international airport in Manitoba, is located in the northwest part of the city. It has three runways 2 varying from 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to 2.0 miles (3.2 km) long, the north/south one 3 being the longest. The terminal buildings—now much expanded—are located to the east 4.

Several roads are obvious:

1)  PTH 101, the bypass around Winnipeg 5;

2)  PR 221 6, leading west to Rosser;

3)  PTH 6 7, leading northwest to the Interlake; and

4)  PR 236 8, leading north to Stonewall;

Railway line routes visible are:

1)  The CP line 9 paralleling PR 221;

2)  The CN line 10 paralleling PTH 6;

3)  A CP line in the east 11; and

4)  A line crossing the CN line 12, north of Winnipeg.

Also creeks have been straightened to improve flow and prevent flooding, giving a linear appearance; for example, Sturgeon Creek 13 is joined by a straightened tributary 14 from the north, and in the north is Grassmere Creek Drain 15.

Figure 18.59: Location of Winnipeg International Airport

Figure 18.59: Location of Winnipeg International Airport

Figure 18.59

Vertical air photograph: A21852-25

Flight height: 22,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.55 mm

Scale: 1:81,000 (approx.)

Date: August 12, 1970

Location: Township 4; Range 1 and 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg

 


18.60: Winnipeg Airport at an Early Stage of Development

This low-level photo provides detail of Winnipeg International Airport at an early stage of development. Parts of three runways can be seen 1. The terminal building is located in the east 2 with a large four-engine plane pulled up beside it 3. Note that at this early stage there are no covered walkways—passengers had to go outside to board the plane. In the west are three hangers 4 with at least eight planes 5 scattered around them and a further 12 (all the same) in a line to the east 6. Fuel storage tanks are located close by 7. In the south is Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg (north), with barrack-like buildings 8. The road along the south edge is Ness Avenue 9 with residential areas north 10 and south 11 of it and Assiniboine Golf Club 12 between two residential areas.

Figure 18.60: Winnipeg Airport at an Early Stage of Development

Figure 18.60: Winnipeg Airport at an Early Stage of Development

Figure 18.60

Vertical air photograph: A18621-4

Flight height: 6,775 feet; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:11,800 (approx.)

Date: September 12, 1964

Location: Township 11, Range 1 and 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg


18.61: Large Scale Image of Winnipeg Airport Today

Despite a number of location studies, the position of Winnipeg Airport has remained the same since it was first established, and the layout of runways has remained much the same since the 1960s. However, facilities at the airport have changed dramatically as indicated on this image. The terminal building now has covered walkways for passengers, eight of which can be seen 1. Four large planes 2 are loading or unloading passengers at the walkways. Two other large planes 3 and three smaller planes 4 are located in other parts of the airport. The passenger terminal is located in the centre 5; covered walkways (6 and 7) lead to a hotel 8 and the building holding the administrative offices 9. A large parking lot is located to the east 10.

Figure 18.61: Large Scale Image of Winnipeg Airport Today

Figure 18.61: Large Scale Image of Winnipeg Airport Today

Google Earth Image 2007

Location: Township 11, Range 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg