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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Chapter 17: Parks, Recreation, Sports

Introduction

Two national parks (Riding Mountain National Park and Wapusk National Park), over 100 provincial parks and numerous local parks are located in Manitoba. Many of them are water-oriented with a lake or lakes as a part of the park. Also some recreational communities (e.g. Gimli and Winnipeg Beach) are located beside lakes. Outdoor sports facilities such as ski hills, golf courses and racetracks are readily identified on remotely sensed images but indoor facilities are more difficult. However, in small communities in southern Manioba there is a good chance that the largest building is a hockey rink and that long narrow buildings house curling lanes.

17.1: The International Peace Garden

 

The International Peace Garden was the dream of Dr. Henry Moore, an Islington, Ontario horticulturalist. “He wanted a “garden” somewhere along the International Boundary of Canada and the United States that would recognize and commemorate the peace and goodwill between these two great countries.”[i] In July 1931, Manitoba and North Dakota offered joining tracks of land free of cost in the scenic Turtle Mountains. “The location is almost the exact centre between the Atlantic and the Pacific and about 30 miles north of the exact centre of the North American continent which is at Rugby (North Dakota, United States of America).”[ii] The Peace Garden encompassing 2339 acres (947 hectares)—888 acres (359.5 hectares) in North Dakota and 1451 acres (587 hectares) in Canada—was dedicated on July 14, 1932 with 50,000 in attendance. It has since become the focal point for a variety of youth camps.

Shown here is part of the Peace Garden at an early stage of development. It is located in the lake-studded Turtle Mountains. North of the border 1 is Lake Stormon 2 and to the south Lake Udall 3.The Canadian side is mainly wooded 4 whereas extensive clearing has occurred to the south 5. PTH 10 6 connecting Boissevain (off the photo to the north) and Dunseith (off the photo to the south) crosses the border in the east. Customs buildings can be seen on both sides of the border (7 and 8); tourists have to pass through at least one set of customs when they visit the Peace Garden. An arch 9 crosses the border just west of PTH 10, and a formal garden 10 culminates in a sunken garden 11. A one-way road encircles both Lake Stormon 12 and Lake Udall 13.

Figure 17.1: The International Peace Garden

Figure 17.1: The International Peace Garden

Figure 17.1

Vertical air photograph: A19903-28

Flight height: 9,950 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.14 mm

Scale: 1:20,000 (approx.)

Date: May 16, 1967

Location: Township 1; Range 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine

Notes


17.2: Lake Metigoshe in Turtle Mountain

As in Canada as a whole, recreational activities in Manitoba are attracted to waterside locations—lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. Swimming, fishing, canoeing, and water skiing take place on or in the water whereas several other activities, although not totally dependent on the existence of water, are attracted to waterside sites, for example, biking and golfing in summer and cross country skiing and snowmobiling in winter. Lakes and reservoirs attract cottage developments as shown on several of the following photos, most of which were taken at the early stages of cottage development.

Lake Metigoshe 1 is a “boundary water” because the international border between Canada and the U.S.A. passes through it 2. It is therefore subject to the article of the Boundary Waters Treaty that makes it equally accessible to both countries although most of it lies in the U.S.A. Shown here is the northern extremity of the lake with cottage developments and small docks on both sides of the border (3 and 4). It is reached from Canada by PR 450 5 which runs south from PTH 3, the main east/west road (off the photo to the north), with Deloraine being the nearest town. The area shown is in the western part of the Turtle Mountains that has a thick cover of ground moraine with many depressions filled by lakes such as Lake Metigoshe, Dropmore Lake 6, and Sharpe Lake 7.

Figure 17.2: Lake Metigoshe in Turtle Mountain

Figure 17.2: Lake Metigoshe in Turtle Mountain

Figure 17.2

Vertical air photograph: A19903-13

Flight height: 9,950 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.14 mm

Scale: 1:20,000 (approx.)

Date: May 16, 1967

Location: Township 1; Range 22WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/1 Deloraine


17.3: William Lake in Turtle Mountain

William Lake 1 in Turtle Mountain is another lake that has been developed as a recreational area. Unlike Lake Metigoshe it is entirely in Canada and is approached by a gravel road 2 running south from PR 341 (off the photo to the north). The photograph shows the area of William Lake Provincial Park in an early stage of development. At the time the only development was a trail along the east shore of the lake 3 and a couple of cottages 4. Now the lake attracts fisherman—it is stocked with, and has had great catches of, rainbow trout —swimmers, campers, and wind surfers. The lake is particularly popular with the latter because, as it is roughly circular, it offers good surfing with winds from any direction. Hikers are attracted to a trail that leads southwest to Turtle’s Back Summit 5 from which spectacular views of southwest Manitoba can be obtained. Charlton Lake 6 is located in the southwest corner of the photo.

Figure 17.3: William Lake in Turtle Mountain

Figure 17.3: William Lake in Turtle Mountain

Figure 17.3

Vertical air photograph: A19906-217

Flight height: 9,000 feet; lens focal length: 152.16 mm

Scale: 1:13,800 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Township 1; Range 19W1

Map sheets: 1:150,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney


17.4: Killarney Lake

Killarney Lake 1 is the source of water for the town of Killarney 2. Also the population of the surrounding area benefits from recreational activities on the lake—swimming, canoeing, water skiing, and fishing—and cottage developments are located along the north 3 and south 4 shores. The main swimming beach can be seen in the southeast 5. “Unfortunately, the water quality in Killarney Lake has been frequently impaired by extensive blue-green algae blooms. Sources of nutrient runoff into the lake include both agricultural and urban sources. The long-term use of bluestone (copper sulphate) has not eliminated algae problems, and perhaps has made it worse. Although lake bottom coring research has demonstrated that Killarney Lake has experienced algae blooms for the last 4,200 years, there is evidence to suggest the conditions have worsened over the past 100 years.”[i] The Killarney Lake Water Quality Committee (KLWQC) was formed to improve the situation. “To address the immediate concern of blue-green algae blooms impairing recreational use of the lake; the committee purchased a lake divider curtain…(which) partitions the beach area from the rest of the lake. As well, the curtain will prevent westerly winds from piling algae up along the east-end beach used for swimming.”[ii] Most of the lake’s inflow comes from Long River 6 that, during the peak spring run off, brings poor quality water into the lake forcing out better quality water. This poor quality water is now routed past the lake, and better quality late spring water is diverted through the longer Lawrence Channel 7, a natural diversion, to ensure the best quality water enters the lake.

Figure 17.4: Killarney Lake

Figure 17.4: Killarney Lake

Figure 17.4

Vertical air photograph: A19904-206

Flight height: 9,600 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,400 (approx.)

Date: May 28, 1967

Location: Townships 2 and 3; Range 17WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/4 Killarney

Notes

[i] Gurney, S. “Working together to protect Killarney Lakehttp://www.quantumlynx.com/water/vol9no2/story1.htm 30/6/2005

[ii] Ibid.


 


17.5: Pelican Lake

Pelican Lake 1, part of the Pembina River 2 drainage system, occupies part of the floor of the Souris-Pembina glacial spillway. At 14.5 miles (23 km) long by 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide it is the longest lake in southwest Manitoba, the only lake in the area big enough to accommodate filling water-bomber planes used to fight forest fires.[i]

Although it is shallow and has little through-flow of water, it has always been a popular recreation spot. By 1906, a 60 foot (18 m) tour boat and two 40 foot (12 m) cargo launches plied the lake, the latter delivering mail and supplies to camps around the lake at Manhattan Beach 3, Strathconal Park 4, Balmy Beach 5, and Sunnyside Beach 6.[ii] The steep sides of the spillway made land access difficult, but trains (as many as three per day) brought day-trippers from Brandon to Ninette 7 at the north end of the lake.

Fluctuations in lake level have caused problems over the years. After a burst of activity in the first 10 years of the 20th century, a period of low water levels resulted in the removal of steamboats the last one leaving in 1916.[iii] Attempts were made to regulate the lake, but during the dry 1930s it continued to fall. Climate conditions were also dry during the 1950s, and the post-war boom in cottage developments led to requests for a system to regulate the lake. However, a return to wetter conditions in the 1960s quietened these demands, but the resulting high water levels caused erosion and flooding along the shore. Renewed requests for regulation now had the aim of keeping the water level down. Finally a regulation project was completed during the 1990s. The project at the southeast end of the lake (off the photo) has both an inlet and an outlet component. The former involves a weir on the Pembina River to divert water into a channel leading into Pelican Lake. The weir is designed to divert some Pembina River water into the lake but also to allow some flow along the Pembina River at all times. The outlet channel mainly occupies the old outflow channel from Pelican Lake. In essence the project diverts water into Pelican Lake when the lake level is low and allows water out of the lake when it is high.

Yachting on the lake is popular. The Pelican Lake Yacht Club was established in 1969 at the north end and hosted the sailing events of the 1997 Canada Summer Games.

Figure 17.5: Pelican Lake

Figure 17.5: Pelican Lake

Figure 17.5

Vertical air photograph: A21749-43

Flight height: 25,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.29 mm

Scale: 1:80,200 (approx.)

Date: July 27, 1970

Location: Townships 3, 4 and 5; Range 16W1 and 17W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/5 Dunrea

Notes

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Welsted, J. “The Ups and Downs and Ins and Outs of Pelican Lake” in Proceedings of the Prairie Division of the Canadian Association of Geographers. ed Wilson, M.R..  Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, 1993, 221-232.



17.6: Ninette and the North End of Pelican Lake

Pelican Lake 1 at 14 miles (22.4 km) long and 1½ miles (2.4 km) wide is the largest lake in southwest Manitoba. It has been a popular recreational spot since the first European settlers arrived, with Ninette 2 at the north end of the lake being the focus of activities. In the early part of the Twentieth Century trains on the SMNR railway line 3—no longer in use—brought holidaymakers for a boat excursion or picnic on the lake. There are now no commercial boats on the lake, but there are many private boats in summer, and many cottages 4 are spread along the shores of the lake.[i] The Pelican Lake Yacht Club was established in 1969 at the north end. It holds races most weekends and hosted the Canada Games sailing events in 1997. In order to do that the club had to construct a breakwater 5 to protect moored vessels 6.

Note also PTH 18 7 that runs along the main street of Ninette 8; it used to divide the RM of Strathcona to the east from the RM of Riverside to the west. In 1999 for administrative convenience, all of Ninette was annexed to the RM of Riverside. The Manitoba Tuberculosis Sanatorium was located at the north end of Pelican Lake, off the photo to the east. It opened in 1910 and closed in 1972.[ii] Many of the residents who were seeking a cure for tuberculosis made use of the recreational potential of the lake. The sanatorium was converted to a training centre for mentally challenged people, but it closed in 2000, and most of the original buildings have now gone.

Figure 17.6: Ninette and the North End of Pelican Lake

Figure 17.6: Ninette and the North End of Pelican Lake

Figure 17.6

Vertical air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: 7,250 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 50 mm

Scale:

Date: summer 2000

Location: Township 5; Range 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/5 Dunrea

Notes

[i] Welsted, J. "The Ups and Downs and Ins and Outs of Pelican lake" Proceedings of the Prairie Division of the Canadian Association of Geographers ed. Wilson, M. R.  Saskatoon; University of Saskatchewan, 1993, 221-232.

[ii] See Stewart, D. B. Holy Ground: The Story of the Manitoba Sanatorium at Ninette. Killarney: c1999.



17.7: Sandy Lake

The area around Sandy Lake 1 received a large influx of settlers at the turn of the 19th century. The lake attracted settlers, and with the arrival of the Canadian Northern railway line 2 between Neepawa to the east and Russell to the west, the area soon became populated. The hamlet of Sandy Lake 3 has strong Ukrainian connections.

Sandy Lake is like Pelican Lake (figure 17.5) in that it has long been a popular resort. It is though quite different in origin being the infilling of a depression in the ground moraine 4 of this area. People from all over Manitoba own cottages—seen mainly on the southeast 5 and southwest 6—on the shores of the lake. Cottages owners here have the advantage of proximity to the facilities of Riding Mountain National Park (off the photo to the north) without the restrictions imposed by the National Park, for example, use of cottages in summer only.

Figure 17.7: Sandy Lake

Figure 17.7: Sandy Lake

Figure 17.7

Vertical air photograph: A21808-6

Flight height: 24,400 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 3.34 inches

Scale: 1:84,480 (approx.)

Date: August 6, 1970

Location: Townships 17 and 18, Ranges 20 and 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/9 Elphinstone


17.8: Kerr Lake

Kerr Lake 1—like Sandy Lake (figure 17.7)—is a water-filled depression in moraine covering Riding Mountain. Also like Sandy Lake, it is just south of the boundary 2 of Riding Mountain National Park 3. It supports cottage developments, seen on the east shore of the lake 4. The lake offers good fishing and the surrounding woods and marshes support hunting (outside the national park) for big game, moose, elk, deer, and bear, as well as smaller game, rabbit, duck, and goose. The lake is approached from the east by a gravel road 5 that leads to a trail that wanders along the east shore 6.

Figure 17.8: Kerr Lake

Figure 17.8: Kerr Lake

Figure 17.8

Vertical air photograph: A25799-170

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date: July 5, 1981

Location: Township 17; Ranges 16 and 17WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62G/5 Clanwilliam


17.9: Stephenfield Lake

Stephenfield Lake is a reservoir created by damming the Boyne River 1. The dam is seen in the east 2 with the riparian channel 3 and spillway 4 at its southern end. Although the main purpose for creating the lake was for water supply, it offers recreational potential. A provincial park is located on the south side of the lake with facilities for camping 5. Parking areas 6 are provided north of the campground with a swimming beach further north—light-toned 7. The lake itself offers the possibility of boating, fishing, sailing, and windsurfing with hiking and mountain bike trails in the surrounding area.

Figure 17.9: Stephenfield Lake

Figure 17.9: Stephenfield Lake

Figure 17.9

Orthophoto published by Manitoba Department of Natural Resources, MAN 237

Scale: 1:12,500

Date:

Location: Township 6; Range 7WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/


17.10: Part of Spruce Woods Provincial Park

Spruce Woods Provincial Park consists of 269 square kilometres of spruce parkland, forest, mixed grass prairie, and the Spirit Sands.[i] It is one of the prime recreational areas in southern Manitoba used for a variety of purposes in summer and winter. In the summer there are opportunities for hiking, bird watching, sightseeing (photography), fishing, swimming, picnicking, camping, horseback riding, and hay wagon rides, and in winter cross-country skiing and snowmobiling are popular.

Shown here are the Bald Head Hills 1, an area of shifting sand dunes 2 (the Spirit Sands) which are migrating slowly to the east-southeast under the influence of the prevailing northwest winds. Bare dunes with steep south-southeast facing slip slopes are very light-toned 3. Behind each dune face is a dark-toned area covered by grasses and trees 4. Southwest of the Bald Head Hills is another dune area, more of which is vegetated.

The Assiniboine River 5 meanders from southwest to northeast leaving behind two prominent abandoned meanders, Kiche Manitou Lake 6 east of the river and Marshes Lake 7 to the west. The latter has been emphasized by the building of PTH 5 8 that joins Glenboro—off the photo to the south—and Carberry—off the photo to the north. Note that the abandoned meanders with little suspended sediment in them are darker toned than the sediment-laden river.

Land ownership boundaries are complicated in this area. Most of the land in the northeast is within the provincial park, apart from an area of privately owned land (cropped 9) in the extreme northeast. Most of the western half lies within Canadian Forces Base Shilo with some private land in the area of Thornborough Flats 10; a farm can be seen in the meander neck 11.

Much of the summer activity is concentrated in the area of Kiche Manitou Lake where the park centre is located 12. Campsites can be seen at several locations 13 with picnic sites in the same general area. Swimming is from a beach (light-toned) at the southeast end of the lake 14. Hikers can park in a lot just north of the Assiniboine 15 and hike to the Spirit Sands or the Devil’s Punch Bowl 16, a large alcove in the north bank of the Assiniboine River created by spring sapping. On the route they might see some of the wildlife of the area including Manitoba’s only lizard, the Northern Prairie Skink, or the Western Hognose snake. Visitors can also canoe the Assiniboine River launching into the river between the two abandoned channels 17.

The park also caters to winter activities with many miles of cross-country ski trails mainly off the photo to the north and snowmobile trails mainly to the east.

Figure 17.10: Part of Spruce Woods Provincial Park

Figure 17.10: Part of Spruce Woods Provincial Park

Figure 17.10

Vertical air photograph: MB92010-36

Flight height: ; lens focal length: 152.031 mm

Scale: 1:40,000 (approx.)

Date: May 6, 1992

Location: Township 8; Range 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/11 Glenboro

Notes


17.11: Gimli on Lake Winnipeg

Gimli is the largest settlement on the west shore of Lake Winnipeg 1. It is one of the province’s main tourist resorts; during the summer the full time population of the area is expanded by the arrival of 10,000 cottagers and as many as 100,000 tourists. Its proximity to Winnipeg (it lies 50 miles [80 km] north of the capital) and the easy access along two highways—numbers 8 and 9—in part accounts for its popularity. It has strong Icelandic connections; many of today’s residents are descended from Icelandic immigrants who founded the community in 1875.

On the photo the CP railway 2 can be seen running due north/south with spurs off to the west 3. PTH 9 4 is east of, and parallel to, the railway. The layout of the town is in the main a grid harmonizing with the DLS system, with a few exceptions. In both the north and south are roads at an angle to the grid 5; also both north and south are roads parallel to the lake shore 6; some roads west of PTH 9 are in crescent shape 7. The main commercial area is along a central east/west road 8. Some of the community’s recreational resources and attractions for tourists are seen on the photo:

1)     A large trailer park/campground is located in the southwest 9.

2)     Further north are two buildings, one of which 10 is probably a hockey arena.

3)     An outdoor recreational area with baseball diamonds is located in the north 11.

4)     Two breakwaters 12 protect piers 13 and moored boats 14 in the centre (the harbour).

5)     North of the harbour is a wide sandy beach 15. In summer Lake Winnipeg is warm enough for swimming, but it is having problems with pollution.[i]

Figure 17.11: Gimli on Lake Winnipeg

Figure 17.11: Gimli on Lake Winnipeg

Figure 17.11

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: 7,200 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 50 mm

Scale: 1:9,500 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 19; Range 4 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/0 Victoria Beach

Notes

[i] Casey, A. “Forgotten LakeCanadian Geographic. vol. 126, no. 6, November, 2006, 62-78.



17.12: Winnipeg Beach on Lake Winnipeg

Winnipeg Beach near the south end of Lake Winnipeg 1 has been a popular resort ever since it was founded in 1900. It was joined to Winnipeg by the CP railway line 2 in 1903, and by 1913 the resort had become so popular that the CPR had 13 trains running the line between Winnipeg and the beach: “hundreds of thousands of Winnipegers would pay the CPR to take them up to the lake for a day or an evening, to enjoy the beach, the rides, the dance hall and concessions.”[i] The dance hall burned down in the late 50s and Winnipeg Beach lost much of its attractiveness. However, it “continues to attract people largely from the north end of Winnipeg.”[ii]

The photo shows the CP railway line that influences the direction of two roads to the west 3. The main commercial area is located to the east of the line 4 with the obligatory hockey arena 5 PTH 9 runs almost due north/south 6, and most of the large area of cottages to east 7 and west 8 of it is laid out on a grid pattern.

Several of the area’s recreational attractions are seen on the photo:

1)     in the north a marina with a breakwater 9 sheltering a harbour behind it.

2)     a long sandy beach further south 10

3)     a trailer court 11

4)     a golf course 12

5)     tennis courts 13

Note also the large sewage lagoons 14 to serve the concentration of cottages in the area.

Figure 17.12: Winnipeg Beach on Lake Winnipeg

Figure 17.12: Winnipeg Beach on Lake Winnipeg

Figure 17.12

Vertical colour air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:14,100 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 17 and 18; Range 4 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

1:50,000 62I /7 Netley Marsh

Notes

[i] Selwood, J. “The Summer Cottage at Lake Winnipeg” in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt and C. Stadel. Winnipeg: The Univeristy of Manitoba Press. 1996, 297.

[ii] Ibid.



17.13: The Location of Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

Manitoba is usually not associated with downhill skiing, but a few small ski hills do exist. Shown here is the east side of Riding Mountain National Park. The boundary between the heavily wooded, dark-toned park 1 and the checkerboard pattern of the agricultural area to the east 2 is clearly visible. The steep eastern face of Riding Mountain is dissected by a series of creeks revealing light-toned shales in the valley sides 3. Three of the longer creeks are Scott Creek 4, McKinnon Creek 5, and Packhorse Creek 6, the two former producing deep alcoves on the Riding Mountain Escarpment. Scott Creek flows out on to the plain where it is channelized into a series of straight stretches 7.

The Mount Agassiz Ski Hill, the location of the downhill skiing events in the 1979 Canada Winter Games, appears as a light-toned area 8 surrounded by dark-toned woodland. It exploits slopes on the sides of the valley of the McKinnon Creek. It is served by a gravel road 9 running west from PTH 5 10. McCreary 11, the nearest town to the ski hill, benefits economically from its existence. The other light-toned linear features 12 are hiking and cross-country ski trails in Riding Mountain National Park.

Figure 17.13: The Location of Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

Figure 17.13: The Location of Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

Figure 17.13

Vertical air photograph: A21808-47

Flight height: 24,400 feet; lens focal length: 3.34 inches

Scale: 1:86,800 (approx.)

Date: August 6, 1970

Location: Townships 20 and 21; Ranges 15 and 16WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/13 Laurier

                    1:125,000 MCR207 Riding Mountain National Park


17.14: Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

This photograph at a much larger scale reveals detail of the ski hill and area. Most of the area is wooded 1, mainly deciduous with occasional patches of dark-toned coniferous trees 2 with some individual trees throwing triangular shadows 3. The ski runs are lighter toned because the trees have been removed 4. A straight northwest/southeast trending line is the path of the chair lift 5. Small huts housing the lift mechanism can be seen at the base 6 and the top 7. Two ski chalet buildings are located at the base, in the northwest 8. A service road—light-toned 9—approaches from the northeast with a parking lot north of it 10. The faint line 11 north of the service road is the line of the power line to the hill.

Figure 17.14: Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

Figure 17.14: Mount Agassiz Ski Hill

Figure 17.14

Vertical air photograph: A20587-49

Flight height: 10,270 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.47 mm

Scale: 1:16,000 (approx.)

Date: May 16, 1968

Location: Township 20; Range 16W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/13 Laurier

                    1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain National Park


17.15: Golf Course at Brandon

Most cities and towns in Manitoba have a golf course either within their boundaries or nearby; Winnipeg has several. They range in quality and prestige from the Norwood Golf Course in Winnipeg, the Falcon Lake Golf Course, and the courses at Hecla Island and Riding Mountain National Park to rather primitive 9-hole courses in some of the towns of the dry southwest where water supply is a problem.

Golf courses are identified mainly on the basis of their shape; or more precisely the shape of individual holes with a long narrow fairway—usually light-toned because it is relatively dry—and a roughly circular green—usually dark-toned, because of dark green, well watered grass. The overall impression is fish like.

Shown on this photo is the City of Brandon Golf Course located on the south side of the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 in the northwestern part of the city 2. The course is divided into two parts by a wooded cliff 3 with about half the holes located on low land near the river. These are frequently flooded in spring despite the construction of a dike on the south bank of the river 4 to try to protect them. Flooding still occurs as it did in 1996 when river water occupied an abandoned channel 5 to the west and then spread eastward. The holes above the river cliff 6, directly west of the clubhouse 7, are not affected.

North of the Assiniboine is Turtle Crossing which includes picnic and camping areas 8 as well as a circular swimming pool 9. In the light-toned cleared area to the east 10, there are now several baseball diamonds. People can reach Turtle Crossing either along the Grand Valley Road 11 or in the summer by a trail 12 that leads from a ferry that crosses the river 13.

Also of note on this photo are the following:

a) two abandoned river channels in addition to the one already mentioned. One, named Lake Percy 14, contains water and once extended further west 15. The other is partly covered by woodland—dark-toned 16—and partly cleared for agriculture—light-toned 17;

b) small plots of land 18 associated with the Agricultural Research Station—off the photo to the north; and

c) an existing railway line (Canadian Pacific) 19 with an abandoned line just south of it 20.

 

Figure 17.15: Golf Course at Brandon

Figure 17.15: Golf Course at Brandon

Figure 17.15

Vertical air photograph: 8123-00-317

Flight height:    lens focal length:

Scale: 1:10,000 (approx.)

Date: 1981

Location: Township 10; Range 19W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon (this map is very old, containing data from 1964)

 


17.16: Golf Course at Steinbach

The golf course at Steinbach is located north of the main built-up area beside a small drainage channel, Manning Canal, 1 that drains northwest to the Seine River diversion. In several cases the fairways 2 leading to the greens 3 are easily identified as are light-coloured bunkers 4. A building near the centre 5 with cars parked beside it 6 may be the clubhouse. In close proximity are five baseball diamonds 7 with large rectangular parking lots nearby 8.

In addition to the recreational facilities, there are other aspects also worth noting:

1)  PTH 12, a divided highway 9 that leads north to Ste. Anne with numerous vehicles on it 10, is located in the west.

2)  east of the highway are three large buildings 11 and several smaller ones 12 with ample parking beside them, a shopping plaza.

3)  a northwest/southeast trending landing strip in the north 13; this is part of Steinbach Municipal Airport. Shadows are falling west of north 14 indicating the photo was taken before noon.

 

Figure 17.16: Golf Course at Steinbach

Figure 17.16: Golf Course at Steinbach

Figure 17.16

Vertical air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Date: 2000

Scale: 1:5,300 (approx.)

Location: Township 7; Range 6 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/10 Ste. Anne

 


17.17: Golf Course at Hartney

The golf course at Hartney 1 is typical of many in southwest Manitoba. Consisting of nine holes it is located on the side of the northeast-flowing Souris River 2 from which irrigation water is probably obtained. The fairways can be seen as light-toned linear areas 3 with small dark-toned greens at one end 4.

The town of Hartney is located on either side of the CP railway line 5 with roads parallel 6 and at right angles 7 to the line. Another line (the CN 8) passes south of the town and crosses the Souris River to the west 9.

Also of note on this photo are 1) two prominent abandoned meanders 10; 2) sewage lagoons 11 and the cemetery 12, characteristically located well out of town; 3) PTH 21 13 which bypasses the town to the west; and 4) the fringes of the Lauder Sand Hills partly wooded 14 seen northwest of the Souris River.

Figure 17.17: Golf Course at Hartney

Figure 17.17: Golf Course at Hartney

Figure 17.17

Vertical air photograph: A20811-91

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,400 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 6; Range 23WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney


17.18: Recreational Facilities at Portage la Prairie

The photograph shows the southern part of the city of Portage la Prairie. The AssiniboineRiver (off the photo) passes the city to the south, although two abandoned meanders of the river—George Lake 1 and another further east 2—can be seen. In the northwest is part of Crescent Lake 3, also an abandoned meander, although judging from its radius and width, at the time of its formation, the river must have carried more water than now. Low-lying areas between meander scrolls are occupied by water 4. The twinned Trans-Canada Highway 5 also passes south of the city with PR 240 6 from St. Claude crossing it at a cloverleaf intersection 7 and leading to River Road 8 and 5th Street SE 9. The city’s sewage lagoons 10 are located southeast of the cloverleaf with a cemetery just to the south 11. On either side of PR 240 are small plots associated with an experimental farm (12 and 13).

Many of Portage la Prairie’s outdoor recreational facilities are located near Crescent Lake. A road crosses the lake leading to a racetrack 14 at the Exhibition Grounds. Two baseball diamonds (15 and 16) are situated inside the track. Southeast of the Exhibition Grounds is Island Park 17 in which are located camping areas 18, tennis courts 19, and the Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen Monument. East of Crescent Lake is a group of eight baseball diamonds 20.

The older parts of Portage la Prairie are located north of Crescent Lake, just visible in the extreme north 21 with Portage la Prairie General Hospital on the southeast fringe 22. Well-treed newer developments—Koko Platz 23 and Mellenville 24—are located to the south separated by a channelized creek 25 that drains from Crescent Lake to George Lake. A nicely situated school 26 is located on Crescent Road 27. Two baseball diamonds are located east of it 28.

Figure 17.18: Recreational Facilities at Portage la Prairie

Figure 17.18: Recreational Facilities at Portage la Prairie

Figure: 17.18

Vertical air photograph: MB96001-157

Flight height: 7,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.098 mm

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May 27, 1996

Location: Township 11; Range 6WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/16 Portage la Prairie


17.19: Racetrack at Wawanesa

Following World War II, harness racing was an extremely popular summer pastime in rural southern Manitoba; many villages and towns had a racetrack, which given the space requirements, was usually located at the edge of the settlement as illustrated in the following photographs. There are now fewer operational tracks but race meets were scheduled for eleven locations in 2006

The racetrack at Wawanesa 1, like the village itself, is located within a meander loop of the Souris River 2. Inside the track is a baseball diamond 3, the boundaries for which can be clearly seen to north, east, and south. Given that the land inside the track is essentially wasted land, this association of baseball diamonds inside racetracks is very common. Wawanesa was one of the venues scheduled for races in 2006.

Figure 17.19: Racetrack at Wawanesa

Figure 17.19: Racetrack at Wawanesa

Figure 17.19

Vertical air photograph: 8123 No. 00-294

Flight height:   focal length:

Scale 1:9,900 (approx.)

Date: 1981

Location: Township 7; Range 17WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa

 


17.20: Racetrack at Elkhorn

The racetrack 1 at the village of Elkhorn is located well to the north of the built up area of the village 2. Already by the time this photo was taken (1964) it seems to be falling into disrepair. The largest building in the village 3 is the hockey rink.

Figure 17.20: Racetrack at Elkhorn

Figure 17.20: Racetrack at Elkhorn

Figure 17.20

Vertical air photograph: A18597-14

Flight height: 9,500 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: September 5, 1964

Location: Townships 11 and 12; Range 28W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/14 Elkhorn


17.21: Racetrack at Ste. Rose du Lac

At the town of Ste. Rose du Lac 1, the racetrack 2 is located northeast of town. Also of note from the recreational point of view is the long narrow building 3 north of the built-up area, just south of the railway line 4; this is a curling rink.

Figure 17.21: Racetrack at Ste. Rose du Lac

Figure 17.21: Racetrack at Ste. Rose du Lac

Figure 17.21

Vertical air photograph: A17717-26

Flight height: 9,320 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.15 mm

Scale: 1:16,900 (approx.)

Date: July 12, 1962

Location: Township 24; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62O Dauphin Lake

                    1:50,000 62O/4 Ochre River


17.22: Racetrack at Melita

Here the racetrack 1 is located southeast of town 2 at the neck of a meander of the east-flowing Souris River 3; under magnification a primitive baseball diamond can be seen inside the track at the west end 4. Also a lighter-toned rectangular area in the east may be a football field 5. The area is flood prone. It is quite common for recreational facilities to be located in flood plains because the economic loss that results from their being flooded is not great.

Figure 17.22: Racetrack at Melita

Figure 17.22: Racetrack at Melita

Figure 17.22

Vertical air photograph: A20811-54

Flight height: 10,300 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 4; Range 26WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney


17.23: Racetrack at Minnedosa

The racetrack 1 at the town of Minnedosa is located north of the built-up area 2. Two baseball diamonds 3 are located inside the track which looks as if it is now disused. Northeast of town is Minnedosa Lake 4 which has been the venue of several regional, national, and international rowing and paddling events. Compare the cottage development west of the lake 5 with that seen on figure 8.42, a much earlier photo. The large building with a light-coloured roof 6 is probably a hockey rink.

Figure 17.23: Racetrack at Minnedosa

Figure 17.23: Racetrack at Minnedosa

Figure 17.23

Vertical air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: 7,200 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 50 mm

Scale: 1:13,300 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 13; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam


17.24: Racetrack at Neepawa

At Neepawa 1 the racetrack is located southwest of town 2. At its northern end is a baseball diamond 3 with bleachers located north and east 4.

Figure 17.24: Racetrack at Neepawa

Figure 17.24: Racetrack at Neepawa

Figure 17.24

Vertical air photograph: A18622-111

Flight height: 9,500 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: September 15, 1964

Location: Township 14; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa


17.25: Racetrack at McCreary

In this case the racetrack 1 is located east of the built-up area of McCreary 2, the other side of the tracks—the CN railway line 3. Some roads run parallel to the railway line 4, including what appears, from its width, to be the Main Street 5. East/west roads 6 though harmonize with the DLS system producing some parallelogram- shaped blocks 7. The large building in the southwest corner of town is a hockey rink 8 with a narrow building housing a curling rink to the west 9.

The north/south trending PTH 5 bypasses McCreary to the west 10. As usual, sewage lagoons are located well outside the built-up area, in this caes to the northeast 11 McCreary is the closest town to the Mount Agassiz Ski Hill and has gained some economic benefit from its proximity.

Figure 17.25: Racetrack at McCreary

Figure 17.25: Racetrack at McCreary

Figure 17.25

Satellite Image, Google Earth 2006 Digital Globe

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Location: Township 20 and 21; Range 15 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/14 McCreary

 


17.26: Recreational Facilities at the City of Dauphin

A racetrack 1 is located near the southeast edge of the city. Certainly three and possibly five baseball diamonds 2 are located inside the track, with a much more elaborate diamond 3 located north of the track. To the north of it is a running track 4 considerably smaller than the racetrack. Many of the city’s indoor recreational facilities are located nearby; several large buildings 5 house a community centre, a swimming pool, an ice hockey rink, and a curling rink, although it is impossible to tell which is which by air photo interpretation alone.

Figure 17.26: Recreational Facilities at the City of Dauphin

Figure 17.26: Recreational Facilities at the City of Dauphin

Figure 17.26

Vertical air photograph: MB92001-54

Flight height: ; lens focal length: 152.031 mm

Scale: 1:11,800 (approx.)

Date: May/June 1992

Location: Township 25; Range 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62N Duck Mountain

                    1:50,000 62N/1 Dauphin


17.27: Indoor Sports Facilities at Strathclair

Air photo interpretation of the exact function of indoor sports/recreational facilities is more difficult than is the case for outdoor facilities as there are no diagnostic features to indicate the function of a building seen from above. However, in rural Manitoba villages and towns there is a good chance that large rectangular buildings with a curved roof are hockey or curling rinks, or both.

In this photo of Strathclair[i] three large buildings are located east of the main settlement. The smallest 1 has the distinctive shape and high profile (indicated by the shadows it throws) of an old style school building. East of it is a lower rectangular building 2 that is a newer school building. To the north is a long building in two parts 3; the western, somewhat wider part, has a curved roof and is almost certainly a hockey rink, whereas the eastern narrower part is a curling rink. To the east of this building is a rough baseball diamond 4.

Figure 17.27: Indoor Sports Facilities at Strathclair

Figure 17.27: Indoor Sports Facilities at Strathclair

 

Figure 17.27

Vertical air photograph: A18623-57

Flight height: 9,500 feet; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:15,500 (approx.)

Date: September 13, 1964

Location: Township 16, Range 22W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/8 Newdale

 

Notes

[i] For details of the settlement of Strathclair see Hillman, W. G.” Evolution of the Strathclair District” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel op. cit. 1996, 161-164.



17.28: Recreation Facilities at Manitou

The village of Manitou 1 is located in Pembina Mountain. As with many other southern Manitoba villages and towns, roads within the settlement are parallel, and at right angles, to the railway line, now disused 2, that bypasses the village to the north. PTH 3 3 runs south of the village.

Several recreational facilities are located in the western part of the settlement. A large building houses an indoor rink 4; an outdoor rink is located south of it 5; and a baseball diamond 6 is located further south. The large, multi-winged building north of the rinks 7 is almost certainly a senior citizens home. There is nothing to make this identification certain, but the size, shape and location of the building in a small community in southern Manitoba make it a strong probability. In the northeast is a long narrow building 8 that probably houses curling lanes. To the east are faint indications of a disused racetrack 9 and a golf course is located in the southeast 10. As usual sewage lagoons are located far from the built up area, in this case to the northeast 11.

Figure 17.28: Recreation Facilities at Manitou

Figure 17.28: Recreation Facilities at Manitou

Figure 17.28

Vertical color air photograph (from Prairie Agri Photo)

Flight height: 7,200 feet a.s.l.; focal length: 50 mm

Scale: 1:5,280 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 3; Range 8W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/2 Pilot Mound

 


17.29: Recreation and Sports Facilities in the Southern Part of Brandon

This large-scale photo shows the south-central part of Brandon with the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 in the north, the CP line 2 and CN line 3, and the two main north/south streets; Eighteenth (PTH 10) 4 in the west, and First in the east 5.

The Provincial Exhibition grounds occupy a rectangle of land between the CN line in the north, Richmond Avenue 6 in the south, Eighteenth Street in the west 7, and Thirteenth Street in the east 8. Near the railway line is the partial outline of a disused racetrack 9; in fact, it is built over on the southwest 10. In the west are several buildings, the largest of which is the flat-roofed Keystone Arena 11, home to the Brandon Wheat Kings hockey team as well as the provincial summer and winter fairs.[i]. Other smaller buildings 12 are pavilions and barns used during the fairs. The arena was also the location of the 1995 World Curling Championships. To the east and south, the dark-toned treed area 13 has a park-like appearance. Further north is Kinsmen Memorial Stadium 14 on which the outlines of a baseball diamond are just visible.

Figure 17.29: Recreational and Sports Facilities in the Southern Part of Brandon

Figure 17.29: Recreational and Sports Facilities in the Southern Part of Brandon

Figure 17.29

Vertical air photograph: A25397-243

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10; Range 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon 

Notes

[i] These are two of a very few major provincial“events” that are held outside Winnipeg; this is not really surprising because the emphasis is heavily agricultural.



17.30: Recreation and Sports Facilities in the Northern Part of Brandon

The photo shows the northern edge of Brandon with the Assiniboine River 1 in the south and the Trans-Canada Highway 2 in the north. The major north/south roads are Eighteenth Street 3 and First Street 4. The northern bank of the Assiniboine Spillway (North Hill) runs east/west across the southern edge. Located at the base of North Hill is the Canada Games Sportsplex 5 built for the Canada Winter Games (1979). West of it is a skating oval 6. The track and field events of the 1997 Canada Summer Games took place on a track built a little further west 7. Almost in the centre of the photo is a nine-hole golf course in the early stages of development 8. To the east are three baseball diamonds 9, well shielded from the wind by trees 10. In the extreme southwest, south of the Assiniboine River are tracks of Participark 11, a favoured jogging area in summer.

The photograph is old enough that a drive-in cinema in the northeast 12 is still in good repair. Finally in the southeast, a large building defies easy identification 13. Hardly recreational, it is in fact the provincial jail.

Figure 17.30: Recreation and Sports Facilities in the Northern Part of Brandon

Figure 17.30: Recreation and Sports Facilities in the Northern Part of Brandon

 

Figure 17.30

Vertical air photograph: A25397-240

Flight height: 9,700 feet; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10; Range 19W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon