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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Chapter 16: Water Resources

Introduction

Manitoba has an abundant supply of surface water with many large lakes and thousands of smaller ones (chapter 2). However, much of the water is in the north or drains to the north where there is a sparse population. In the south dams and reservoirs have been constructed to conserve water in some areas, whereas in other places projects were designed to drain water from the land to make it suitable for cultivation. The province’s rivers offered enormous potential for hydroelectric power, much of which has now been exploited, starting with a small-scale project on the Little Saskatchewan River and progressing to large projects on the Winnipeg, Saskatchewan and Nelson rivers. Two thermal power stations at Brandon and Selkirk on the Assiniboine and Red rivers illustrate the need for an assurred water supply. Flooding has been a problem since the earliest days of the province, especially along the Assiniboine and Red rivers culminating in the 1997 “Flood of the Century” in the Red River Valley. Dams, diversions and ring dikes are used to divert the floodwaters to less critical areas.

16.1: Dam at Souris

Several communities in southern Manitoba obtain their municipal water from a nearby river. This is the case with Souris 1 located on either side of the eastward-flowing Souris River 2. On this photo, three items can be seen crossing the Souris River. The furthest upstream is a road bridge 3 carrying PTH 22 4. A faint line further downstream 5 is a swinging footbridge which enables people to cross from the northwestern part of the town to the southeastern. At 582 feet (177.4 m) in length it claims to be the longest suspension footbridge in Canada. It was destroyed during the 1976 flood but has since been restored. Further downstream is a weir 6 that backs up water for the intake at the water treatment plant 7 located near the junction of Plum Creek 8. The river channel is wider above the weir 9 than it is below 10.

Figure 16.1: Dam at Souris

Figure 16.1: Dam at Souris

Figure 16.1

Vertical air photograph: A20811-78

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,000 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Townships 7 and 8; Range 21WI

Map sheets 1:250,000 62F Virden

       1:50,000 62F/9 Souris


16.2: Dam at Wawanesa

Here the northeastward-flowing Souris River 1 has incised meanders into the surrounding landscape. One meander encircles the village of Wawanesa 2, while another northeast of the village has been abandoned 3. At the time the photo was taken five items of infrastructure crossed the river. Furthest upstream is a buried pipeline 4. South of the village, close to each other is a road bridge 5 and a railway bridge 6. The approaches to both were washed out in a large flood in 1976; only the road bridge was restored. North of the village, a weir 7 with rapidly flowing water downstream 8 holds back water for municipal water supply. The river channel is wider above the weir 9 than it is below 10. A second highway bridge 11 carries PR 340 northwards out of the village towards Brandon.

Figure 16.2: Dam at Wawanesa

Figure 16.2: Dam at Wawanesa

Figure 16.2

Vertical air photograph: A23692-7

Flight height: 13,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:24,400 (approx.)

Date: May 12, 1974

Location: Township 7; Range 17WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/12 Wawanesa


16.3: Water Supply Strategies in the Assiniboine Valley

Hundreds of small dams have been built across streams in southern Manitoba to provide water for domestic and farm use. Here a dam 1 has been built across a small stream 2 that drained to the Assiniboine River 3 in the northeast corner of the photo. The resulting reservoir 4 provides water for a nearby Hutterite colony 5. Also visible are two dugouts 6 excavated to retain water for cattle.

Figure 16.3: Water Supply Strategies in the Assiniboine Valley

Figure 16.3: Water Supply Strategies in the Assiniboine Valley

Figure 16.3

Vertical air photograph: A18623-12

Flight height: 9,385 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:21,700 (approx.)

Date: September 13, 1964

Location: Township 16; Range 28WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/6 Birtle


16.4: Dam and Reservoir at Kenton

 

The small hamlet of Kenton 1 (population of 158 in 1986) gets its water supply by damming a minor tributary 2 of Oak River 3 which in turn flows to the Assiniboine River—off the photo to the south. The dam produces a reservoir 4 just over ½ mile (0.8 km) long south of Kenton 5, which along with Harding 6 and Bradwardine 7 (both now abandoned) is located on the Lenore extension 8.[i]  Lenore is off the photo to the west.

Figure 16.4: Dam and Reservoir at Kenton

Figure 16.4: Dam and Reservoir at Kenton

Figure 16.4

Vertical air photograph: A21666-13

Flight height: 23,170 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:83,400 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 11 and 12; Ranges 24 and 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

Notes

[i] Williams, A. and Everitt, J. “An Analysis of Settlement Development in Southwest Manitoba: The Lenore Extension” in Prairie and Northern Perspectives: Geographical Essays eds. Selwood H. J. and Lehr, J. C. Winnipeg: Department of Geography, University of Winnipeg, Department of Geography, 1989, 113-122.



16.5: St. Malo Reservoir on the Rat River

The Rat River dam 1 was built by the PFRA in response to concerns about the area’s water supply. Built in 1958, the dam created the St. Malo reservoir 2 from which water is able to flow into the Rat River 3 that provides consistent flow for surrounding towns and farms. Soon, however, the settlement of St. Malo 4 realized the recreational potential of the reservoir, and in June 1961 its northern shore was designated as St. Malo Provincial Park. A wide beach 5 provides access to the reservoir for swimming, canoeing, and sailing. Inland are trails for biking in summer and cross-country skiing in winter. The park is separated from the settlement by PTH 59 6 which runs south from Winnipeg through St. Pierre-Joly and St. Malo.

Figure 16.5: St. Malo Reservoir on the Rat River

Figure 16.5: St. Malo Reservoir on the Rat River

Figure 16.5

Vertical air photograph: MB 95001-131

Flight height: 7,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.815 mm

Scale: 1:12.000 (approx.)

Date: May 11, 1995

Location: Township 4; Range 4E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/7 St. Malo


16.6: Minnedosa Lake

Minnedosa Lake 1 north of the town of Minnedosa 2 results from a dam 3 built across the Little Saskatchewan River 4. The lake, which has a spillway 5 at the east end of the dam, extends for close to two miles north along the valley. The only function of the present dam is to produce Minnedosa Lake, but the original dam, built between 1910 and 1912, included a powerhouse for generation of electricity that continued until 1933. Minnedosa Lake is now an important recreational centre for southwest Manitoba. Cottage developments can be seen on the west shore 6 and to the southeast 7, with beaches nearby 8. The lake itself is used for water sports; it is the home of the Minnedosa Rowing Club and was used for the Western Canada Water Ski Championships (1980), for events in the Canada Games (1997), and for rowing, canoeing, and kayaking events in the Pan Am Games (1999). Not only is the lake well suited to these events, the valley sides provide excellent viewing for spectators.

Figure 16.6: Minnedosa Lake

Figure 16.6: Minnedosa Lake

Figure 16.6

Vertical air photograph: A21439-32

Flight height: 9,850 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: June 3, 1970

Location: Township 15; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:125,000 62J/SW Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam


16.7: Minnedosa Lake, Empty

This old photograph together with figure 16.6 demonstrates the usefulness of sequential photographs. On this photo the dam 1 can be seen with a gap at its eastern end 2 through which water has rushed. The break occurred in 1948, resulting in some flooding of Minnedosa, downstream. North of the dam previously flooded land is now dry 3 with the exception of the reoccupied river course 4, some oxbows 5, and other low-lying patches 6. Compare this area with the same area on figure 16.6 that was taken after the dam had been reconstructed. At this early date (1949), there are no cottages beside the “lake” 7 and no recreational facilities on the southeast lakeshore 8.

Figure 16.7: Minnedosa Lake, Empty

Figure 16.7: Minnedosa Lake, Empty

Figure 16.7

Vertical air photograph: A11674-154

Flight height: 9,000 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:14,700 (approx.)

Date: September 3, 1949

Location: Township 15; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:125,000 62J/SW Neepawa

                    1:25,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam


16.8: Dam and Reservoir at Rivers

The dam 1 on the Little Saskatchewan River 2 near Rivers 3 was built in 1960 by the PFRA as a multi-purpose project but primarily to offer flood protection to Brandon located on the Assiniboine River into which the Little Saskatchewan River flows. A spillway 4 can be seen at the south end of the dam which backs up Lake Wahtopanah 5.[i] As with Minnedosa Lake, so here the recreational potential of the lake has been recognized; Rivers Provincial Park with facilities for camping, picnicking, swimming, and boating is located on the northwestern shore 6, and some cottage development has started at Daly Beach on the opposite bank 7. The town of Rivers now gets its municipal water supply from the lake.

Figure 16.8: Dam and Reservoir at Rivers

Figure 16.8: Dam and Reservoir at Rivers

Figure 16.8

Vertical air photograph: A21666-17

Flight height: 23,170 feet; lens focal length: 3.5 inches

Scale: 1:80,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Township 11 and 12; Ranges 20 and 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/1 Rivers

Notes

[i] The dam is 21.9 metres (71.8 feet) high and has a storage capacity of 30,000 dam3. Prairie Land and Water Resources http://collections.ic.gc.ca/soilandwater/w4.htm.



16.9: Lake Irwin on the Whitemud River

Lake Irwin 1, a PFRA project, was created in 1960 by building a dam 2 across the Whitemud River 3 that empties into the south end of Lake Manitoba after flowing through Neepawa and Gladstone. A riparian conduit 4 carries water through the dam into the river, and a spillway 5 bypasses the dam on the east side. Lake Irwin is the source for Neepawa’s municipal water supply and is also used for swimming, sailing, water skiing, and fishing. Although not shown on this image some cottage development has occurred around the lake. On this large-scale image, the original north/south 6 and east/west 7 section lines can be seen approaching the lake.

Figure 16.9: Lake Irwin on the Whitemud River

Figure 16.9: Lake Irwin on the Whitemud River

Figure 16.9

Vertical air photograph: A18621-130

Flight height: 9,385 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: September 12, 1964

Location: Township 14; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:125,000 62J SW Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa


16.10: The Stephenfield Reservoir

The multi-purpose Stephenfield Reservoir 1 was created by the PFRA in 1963 by building a dam 2 across the Boyne River 3 that flows to the Red River with a spillway at its south end 4. The over two-mile long reservoir has a storage capacity of 4,400 dam3. It retains water for domestic, agricultural, and municipal use. A water treatment plant opened in 1999 supplies the surrounding RM of Dufferin and pipelines that lead to the western part of the RM of Grey and the hamlet of Haywood to the north. Stephenfield Provincial Park is now located on the south shore of the reservoir, although it is not visible on this old, small-scale photo 5. It provides facilities for swimming, boating, and fishing in the reservoir. Just north of the reservoir is the correction line between townships 6 and 7 6.

Figure 16.10: The Stephenfield Reservoir

Figure 16.10: The Stephenfield Reservoir

Figure 16.10

Vertical air photograph: A21666-224

Flight height: 22,240 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.611 mm

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Township 6, 7 and 8; Ranges 6 and 7WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/9 St. Claude


16.11: St. Andrews Dam and Lock

All the dams illustrated in figures 16.1 to 16.10 were constructed, at least in part, to retain water for domestic, agricultural, or municipal use. But the St. Andrews Dam 1 across the northward-flowing Red River 2 was built between 1900 and 1910 primarily to allow river transport between Winnipeg (to the south) and Lake Winnipeg (to the north). The Lister Rapids on the Red River had hindered boat travel along the river since the time of the fur trade. The dam is one of only three camere-style removable structures in the world, the other two being on the Seine River in France. The design of the dam involved ingenuity, because a permanent dam structure would have caused ice jams during the spring leading to flooding upstream. The dam features “the French camere curtain design [that] uses wooden curtains to control water levels. The hinged slats of Douglas fir roll up and down as a blind does.”[i] The curtain is placed in the water during the navigation season and removed during the winter. A lock at the west end 3 allows boats to bypass the dam. Over the years commercial traffic between Winnipeg and Lake Winnipeg has declined, but the lock is still used by pleasure craft. A bridge deck was added to the dam in 1913 and now carries PTH 44 4 across the river linking west 5 and east 6 Lockport. Also the dam provides an artificial summer water level in the city of Winnipeg, the benchmark elevation for many structures along the river. There is good fishing for walleye and record-sized catfish in the rapidly flowing water below the dam 7. Note also, this area along the Red River is divided according to the French long lot system resulting in long narrow fields running back from the river 8 with houses at the narrow ends of fields in strip developments along roads running parallel to the river 9. The photograph was taken before construction of the Red River Floodway that enters the Red just downstream from the dam.

Figure 16.11: St. Andrews Dam and Lock

Figure 16.11: St. Andrews Dam and Lock

Figure 16.11

Vertical air photograph: A11911-305

Flight height: 9,350 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,000 (very approx.)

Date: May 24, 1949

Location of the west end of the dam 50º 05'N; 96º 56'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/2 Selkirk

Notes

[i] Lebrecht, S. Trans Canada Trail Manitoba. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic Enterprises, 2003, 266.



16.12: St. Andrews Dam and Lock from the Southeast

This low oblique (the horizon is not shown) was taken looking northwest across St. Andrews Dam 1 with the lock 2 located at its west end. Vehicles on PTH 44 on the dam can be seen 3 as well as fast-moving water downstream from the dam 4 with numerous small fishing boats 5.

Figure 16.12: St. Andrews Dam and Lock from the Southeast

Figure 16.12: St. Andrews Dam and Lock from the Southeast

Figure 16.12

Low oblique photo

Source: www.tc.gc.ca/programs/surface/bridges/images/standrews.jpg

Location of the west end of the dam: Lat 50º 05' N, Long 96º 56'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

1:50,000 62I/2 Selkirk


16.13: Sewage Lagoons at Brandon

Several communities in Manitoba obtain their water from rivers and subsequently dispose of sewage into the same river downstream. Shown here is the eastern part of the City of Brandon 1 with the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 2 from which the city extracts water, upstream off the photo. Wastewater is treated at a plant south of the Assiniboine and carried via pipeline to sewage lagoons north of the river 3 just east of the junction of Chater Creek 4. As is commonly the case the lagoons are located east of the main built up area—although within the city boundaries—indicated by the dashed line 5 because the prevailing winds are from a westerly sector. However, at the time this photo was taken the wind was from the southeast as indicated by a smoke plume 6 emanating from Manitoba Hydro’s thermal electric power station 7.

Also of note on this photo is the upper part of the Assiniboine Delta with dry surface conditions 8, because of the underlying sands and gravels, and the correction line between townships 10 and 11 9.

Figure 16.13: Sewage Lagoons at Brandon

Figure 16.13: Sewage Lagoons at Brandon

Figure 16.13

Vertical air photograph: A25656-43

Flight height: 17,384 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length 88.19 mm

Scale: 1:55,100 (approx.)

Date: September 4, 1981

Location: Townships 10 and 11; Ranges 18 and 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

 


16.14: Sewage Lagoons at Neepawa

In a similar spatial arrangement to that seen in Brandon, the sewage lagoons at Neepawa 1 are located northeast of the town 2. Sewage is treated before being released into the nearby Whitemud River 3 that flows to Lake Manitoba. The town obtains its water from Lake Irwin, an impoundment of the Whitemud River. The reservoir 4, dam 5, and spillway 6 can be seen near the southern edge of the photo.

Figure 16.14: Sewage Lagoons at Neepawa

Figure 16.14: Sewage Lagoons at Neepawa

Figure 16.14

Vertical air photo: A18622-112

Flight height: 9,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,900 (approx.)

Date: September 15, 1964

Location: Townships 14 and 15; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:125,000 62J SW Neepawa

                     1:50,000 62J/3 Neepawa                 


16.15: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

Large parts of southwestern Manitoba are covered by hummocky ground moraine with thousands of small lakes (sloughs) occupying low-lying areas. Many of these have dried up either as a result of natural infilling by emergent vegetation or by artificial drainage by humans to increase the land area available for agriculture. This image is of the northwestern end of an esker complex extending from near Oak Lake (off the photo to the south) to Lenore (off the photo to the north). Four esker-like ridges are visible 1, as are sloughs in various stages of development. Some dark-toned sloughs 2 are devoid of vegetation, whereas others have vegetation growing from the sides 3 or in the middle 4. One large slough 5 is almost completely unfilled, and others are completely dry 6; one is occupied by a clump of trees 7. Although water is available from the sloughs, farmers have constructed artificial reservoirs (dugouts) 8 to hold water for domestic and farm use.

Also notable on this image are shelterbelts protecting farm buildings 9, and straw stacks 10. Sections 10 and 11 of township 11, range 24W1 are irregularly shaped.

Figure 16.15: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

Figure 16.15: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

Figure 16.15

Vertical air photograph: A16411-79

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: October 29, 1958

Location: Township 11; Range 24WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

 


16.16: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

This is another photograph of the hummocky ground moraine of southwestern Manitoba. The infilling and drainage of sloughs—natural and artificial—has contributed to a reduction in the total area of wetlands in Manitoba. Here the drying of sloughs is more marked than on figure 16.15. In the south one slough 1 has an expanse of mudflats surrounding it 2, and in the north is what appears from its light tone to be a shallow slough 3. Between the two is a slough being unfilled by vegetation 4. Several examples of dried sloughs can be identified 5; one has been occupied by trees 6. In the north one of the dried sloughs 7 has been artificially drained 8 into a lower one.

Also notable are two dugouts 9 and a small cemetery 10—well removed from the settlement it services. A dusting of snow on the land 11 indicates that this is an early winter photo.

Figure 16.16: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

Figure 16.16: Dried-Up Sloughs Near Lenore

Figure 16.16

Vertical air photograph: A16411-49

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,000 (approx.)

Date: October 29, 1958

Location: Township 11; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/15 Virden


16.17: Artificial Drainage of Sloughs North of Minnedosa

Here is another photograph of hummocky ground moraine topography with numerous sloughs 1, many surrounded by rings of emergent vegetation 2. Also some have been drained 3 by constructing a ditch 4 leading into a lower level slough 5.

Also notable on this image is a combine 6 producing wider combined rows 7 compared with narrower swathed rows 8. Traffic 9 on the highway in the south 10, provides an example of the photo interpretation criterion, size, in identifying objects. There are 3 objects11, one larger and two smaller; the larger object is a truck, and the two smaller objects, cars.

Figure 16.17: Artificial Drainage of Sloughs North of Minnedosa

Figure 16.17: Artificial Drainage of Sloughs North of Minnedosa

Figure 16.17

Vertical air photograph: A18625-210

Flight height: 9,445 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.13 mm

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date: September 11, 1964

Location: Township 15; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:50,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam


16.18: Artificial Drainage and Dugouts in the Souris Valley Near Lauder

This photo is unusual in that its sides are not generally east/west and north/south trending. It is part of a group taken along the northeast-flowing Souris River 1. Here the river cuts across the floor of Glacial Lake Hind, which in this area left behind dry sandy soils. Further north around Marshy Lake the land is—as the name suggests—marshy, and an artificial ditch 2 has been constructed to the Souris River to drain it. However, here numerous dugouts are needed for both domestic 3 and farm use 4.

Also notable are former courses of the Souris River 5 and partly cultivated fields 6—the cultivated areas are dark 7 compared with non-cultivated areas 8.

Figure 16.18: Artificial Drainage and Dugouts in the Souris Valley Near Lauder

Figure 16.18: Artificial Drainage and Dugouts in the Souris Valley Near Lauder

Figure 16.18

Vertical air photograph: A20811-35

Flight height: 10,300 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:17,400 (approx.)

Date: September 28, 1968

Location: Township 5; Range 25WI

Map sheets 1:250,000 62F Virden

                   1:50,000 62F/7 Hartney

 


16.19: Reclaimed Land Near Oak Lake

The photo shows an area of about four square miles (10.4 square kilometres) between Oak Lake and Plum Lakes to the northeast and east, and Marshy Lake to the south. It lies on the floor of glacial Lake Hind and, after the retreat of the lake, was a marshy area. Land has been reclaimed to be used mostly for hay growing—bales can be seen in several locations 1. A small creek, Bell Creek 2, drains eastward into Plum Lakes. Another dry drainage channel 3 with some abandoned sections 4 drains across the two northern sections to join Bell Creek off the photo to the east. Other segments of drainage channels can be seen in several locations 5. The reclaimed soils are very dark, especially where the land has been left fallow 6. In one location cultivation has produced an even darker tone 7. Where a crop has been gown 8, wet patches obviously hinder growth and harvesting 9. Six farms 10 can be seen in the area, all protected by shelterbelts11. The CN line crosses the southwest corner 12.

The photo was taken in early winter—shadows of trees 13 indicate that they have no leaves. The shadows fall just west of north 14 indicating that the photo was taken just before noon.

Figure 16.19: Reclaimed Land Near Oak Lake

Figure 16.19: Reclaimed Land Near Oak Lake

Figure 16.19

Vertical air photograph: A20287-3

Flight height: 9,330 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.17 mm

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date: October 30, 1967

Location: Townships 7 and 8; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/10 Pipestone

 


16.20: Drainage of the Red River Plain East of Miami

Under natural conditions the Red River Plain, the floor of Glacial Lake Agassiz, was a vast expanse of marshy land, but in the early part of the 20th century it was converted into a rich agricultural area by drainage of the marshes. This was accomplished by constructing a network of artificial drainage channels and straightening some of the natural creeks. Shown here, just east of Miami, is a small eastward-flowing creek 1. Two small creeks enter it from the north 2 and east 3. The main creek has been straightened by cutting across bends and meanders 4 and confining it between well-defined banks. In mid summer when the photo was taken, it carried virtually no water—water can be seen only in the extreme east 5.

Cutting across the centre of the area is PTH 23 6 with a ditch separating it from the CN railway 7 to the north. Small bridges across the ditch 8 and level crossings over the rail line provide access to farms to the north. Also of note on this photo are irregular dark-toned lines 9 which are minor grooves that may have been gouged by icebergs in Lake Agassiz. Note also shelterbelts around farms 10 in this flat windswept area.

Figure 16.20: Drainage of the Red River Plain East of Miami

Figure 16.20: Drainage of the Red River Plain East of Miami

Figure 16.20

Vertical air photograph: A16183-90

Flight height: 10,050 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:18,600 (approx.)

Date: July 22, 1958

Location: Township 5; Range 6WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/8 Miami


16.21: Water Supply Strategies in the Souris Valley

The international, interprovincial Souris River flows from Saskatchewan into North Dakota and then into Manitoba, south of Coulter. Shown here is the southernmost part of the Souris River in Manitoba 1 just after it has crossed the international border 2. The river, which has been artificially straightened, flows on the floor of a shallow spillway that used to carry water from glacial Lake Souris to the south to glacial Lake Hind to the north; its banks are marked by dashed lines 3. In this semi arid area of southwestern Manitoba water supply is a problem. Two coping strategies are illustrated: 1) several small dams have been built to hold back water on small creeks draining to the Souris 4; and 2), there are numerous dugouts 5 both for domestic and agricultural use.

Also of note on this photo is the lack of conformity between the DLS and the equivalent system used in the U.S.A. North/south section lines do not coincide 6; and because the U.S. system has a base line further south, a line of partial sections occurs along the border 7.

Figure 16.21: Water Supply Strategies in the Souris Valley

Figure 16.21: Water Supply Strategies in the Souris Valley

Figure 16.21

Vertical air photograph: A20472-68

Flight height: 21,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:40,900 (approx.)

Date: May 23, 1968

Location: Township 1; Ranges 26 and 27WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/2 Waskada


16.22: Souris Valley Flooded in Spring

This large-scale photo shows part of the area shown in figure 16.21. The flooding of part of the spillway floor—dark-toned—is clearly seen 1, and the flooding emphasizes the embankments confining the Souris channel 2. This is a much older photo than that in figure 16.21, but a small dam west of the Souris 3 has already been constructed (it is seen on figure 16.21), but another one visible east of the river on figure 16.21 is not visible here 4. Only two dugouts are visible on this photo 5.

Figure 16.22: Souris Valley Flooded in Spring

Figure 16.22: Souris Valley Flooded in Spring

Figure 16.22

Vertical air photograph: A11050-363

Flight height: 9,520 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,840

Date: June 29, 1947

Location: Township 1; Ranges 26 and 27WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/2 Waskada


16.23: River Straightening on the Little Saskatchewan River Near Elphinstone

A commonly used strategy for reducing flooding on valley floors is to straighten out meanders. Shown here is the excessively meandering, southward-flowing Little Saskatchewan River 1 near the settlement of Elphinstone 2. A large stretch of the river has been straightened 3 leaving behind abandoned stretches 4. Both the east/west PTH 45 5 and the north/south PR 354 6 cross both the straightened channel 7 and an abandoned stretch 8. The river is also crossed by the CN railway line 9 in the northeast 10. Also of note on this photo is a radio tower that throws a shadow to the northeast 11, indicating that the photo was taken in the afternoon.

Figure 16.23: River Straightening on the Little Saskatchewan River Near Elphinstone

Figure 16.23: River Straightening on the Little Saskatchewan River Near Elphinstone

Figure 16.23

Vertical air photograph: A20370-44

Flight height: 9,820 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:15,840 (approx.)

Date: May 13, 1969

Location: Township 18, Range 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/9 Elphinstone


16.24: Channelized Stream Near Laurier

Many of the small creeks draining off the east face of Riding Mountain have been straightened or extended to link up with rivers draining to Dauphin Lake in an effort to reduce the flood risk in the area. Shown here is part of the channel of Scott Creek 1 that flows from Riding Mountain (off the photo to the southwest) to Turtle River (off the photo to the northeast) which in turn flows to Dauphin Lake. When the photo was taken, the southwestern part of the straight channel 2 contained no water, the gravel in the channel bottom producing a light tone. PTH 5 3 runs north/south crossing Scott Creek in the northeast 4. Drainage ditches on both sides 5, necessitating numerous small bridges to gain access to the fields 6, parallel the road. The CN railway line 7 cuts across the southwest corner of the photo crossing Scott Creek on a bridge 8.

This area was covered by the waters of glacial Lake Agassiz that has left behind a thin layer of sediment through which the northwest/southeast lineations of the underlying Jurassic rock can be seen 9. Slightly different lineations near the centre of the photo 10 are probably relics of Lake Agassiz strandlines. Note also in the northwest of the photo a field that is partly cut; the dark-toned centre 11 contrasts with the light-toned swath on the outside 12. Careful examination reveals the swathing machine located in the northwest corner 13.

Figure 16.24: Channelized Stream Near Laurier

Figure 16.24: Channelized Stream Near Laurier

Figure 16.24

Vertical air photograph: A25800-180

Flight height: 9,700 feet; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale 1:17,600 (approx.)

Date: July 5, 1981

Location: Township 21 and 22; Range 15WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

                    1:125,000 MCR 207 Riding Mountain National Park

                    1:50,000 62J/13 Laurier


16.25: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River

One of the main values of keeping old photographs is that they preserve records of things that have disappeared. This 1947 photo shows the Ten Mile Dam 1[i] on the Little Saskatchewan River 2 just above its junction with the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 3. The dam backed up a reservoir 4 in the Little Saskatchewan Valley, but it emptied when the dam was washed away in 1948. The dam was the location of the first hydroelectric power station in Manitoba. It supplied electricity to Brandon during the summer months between 1901 and 1930.

Note also on this photo the Assiniboine River flows near the southern margin of a glacial lake spillway 5, the northern edge of which is marked by a dashed line 6. Where it crosses the spillway floor the Little Saskatchewan River has changed position many times; former positions can be seen west 7 and east 8 of the channel that existed in 1947. The meander loop on the Assiniboine in the extreme southwest corner 9 has since been artificially cut off.

Figure 16.25: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River

Figure 16.25: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River

Figure 16.25

Vertical air photograph: A11041-202

Flight height: 9,520 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,200 (approx.)

Date: May 19, 1947

Location: Township 10 and 11; Range 20WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/16 Alexander

Notes

[i] Ten miles is the distance from Brandon.



16.26: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River (Ground Level Photo)

The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River was the first hydroelectric plant in Manitoba. This ground photo taken looking upstream shows water running over the spillway to the left. A building on the right housed the power generating equipment. The plant began operating and supplying Brandon with electricity in 1901. However, it did not operate in winter and was supplemented by a steam plant on Tenth Street. By about 1920 the steam plant had been expanded and the hydro plant closed[i]. The dam was washed out by high discharge created by a thunderstorm in 1948.

Figure 16.26: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River (Ground Level Photo)

Figure 16.26: The Ten Mile Dam on the Little Saskatchewan River (Ground Level Photo)

Figure 16.26

Ground photograph

Manitoba Hydro: 1913 (approx.)

Location: Township 10; Range 20 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                    1:50,000 62F/16 Alexander

Notes

[i] Information from L. A. Stuckey, Brandon.



16.27: The Area of Grand Rapids Dam

The Grand Rapids Dam 1, on the Saskatchewan River was the first major hydro station built in “northern” Manitoba to supply the south. With a fall of 36.5 metres it has the greatest head of any Manitoba hydro station. It was completed in 1968 and has a capacity of 472,000 kw. The dam built up water behind it into Cross Bay 2, necessitating the building of dikes 3 to prevent water overflowing onto surrounding land. The Saskatchewan River 4 now flows to the south of the forebay with Ukamasahaw Point 5 between the two water bodies.

Several route ways can be seen: 1) PTH 6 6 north from Winnipeg crosses the Saskatchewan River below the dam 7 on its way north to Thompson. Minor roads follow the dikes 8 and cross the Saskatchewan River on the dam; and 2) very obvious is a wide light-toned zone 9, an area cleared of vegetation, the route followed by power lines, both north and south of the dam. Narrower light-toned lines (10 and 11) are also power line routes.

Figure 16.27: The Area of Grand Rapids Dam

Figure 16.27: The Area of Grand Rapids Dam

Figure 16.27

Google Earth Image 2006 Terra Metrics

Scale: 1:109,000 (approx.)

Location: Township 48: Range 13 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 63G Grand Rapids

                    1:50,000 63G/13 Davidson Lake


16.28: Grand Rapids Dam

This low oblique photo of the Grand Rapids dam 1 shows the difference in height between water in the forebay above the dam 2 and in the tailrace below the dam 3. The project was technically difficult because the limestone on which it is built is fractured and therefore permeable. The gaps had to be filled with concrete before development could proceed.

Figure 16.28: Grand Rapids Dam

Figure 16.28: Grand Rapids Dam

Figure 16.28

Low-level oblique colour photo: taken looking southwest

Credit: Manitoba Hydro

Location: Township 48; Range 13WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 63G Grand Rapids

1:50,000 63G/13 Davidson Lake


16.29: Seven Sisters Dam on the Winnipeg River

The Winnipeg River used to traverse a series of rapids between the Ontario border and Lake Winnipeg. The fall in water level has been exploited for hydropower by building a succession of dams along the river. One of them is the Seven Sisters Dam built in two stages, the first completed in 1931 and the second in 1952; the dam was reconstructed in 1979.

The large building in centre bottom 1 houses the generators and the spillway is located at the bottom of the photo 2. Water build up in the forebay 3 has required the building of a dike 4 to prevent flooding of surrounding land. The riparian flow of the river is seen below the generators 5 and the irregular bed of the former river channel is seen to the south 6. A 385 feet (117.5 m) communication tower throws a shadow just west of north 7 indicating that the photo was taken in late morning sun time.

 

Figure 16.29: Seven Sisters Dam on the Winnipeg River

Figure 16.29: Seven Sisters Dam on the Winnipeg River

Figure 16.29

Vertical air photograph: MH98893002-36

Flight height: 3,400 a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.803 mm

Scale: 1:5,000 (approx.)

Date: May 9, 1998

Location: Township 13; Range 11E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/1 Molson

 


16.30: Seven Sisters Dam, Low Oblique Photo

The photo was taken looking upstream (to the east) with the building housing the generators on the left 1 and the spillway on the right 2. A dike 3 was built on the south side of the forebay 4 as well as on the north side (seen in figure 16.29). The riparian flow of the Winnipeg River 5 is seen in the centre with the irregular floor of the former river channel to the south 6. Pylons that carry power lines from the station have been built on cement foundations in the old river channel 7. A communications tower is located to the left of the generator building 8.

Note that aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) have turned yellow 9 indicating that this is an early fall photo.

Figure 16.30: Seven Sisters Dam, Low Oblique Photo

Figure 16.30: Seven Sisters Dam, Low Oblique Photo

Figure 16.30

Low oblique photograph by Manitoba Hydro

Scale: Variable, largest in the foreground

Location: Township 13; Range 11E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk

                    1:50,000 62I/1 Molson

 


16.31: The Kettle Rapids Power Station and Gillam

With a capacity of 1,272,000 kw, the Kettle Rapids Power Station on the Nelson River is the second largest in Manitoba behind only the Limestone Station about 20 miles (32 km) downstream. Its capacity is increased by the diversion of water into the Nelson River from the Churchill River further north. Shown on the photo are the dam 1 across the Nelson River 2 and its expansion, Stephen’s Lake 3. Kettle River 4 and Boots Creek 5 drain to the Nelson. The town of Gillam 6 (population 1,209 in 2006) grew up essentially to build the Nelson River dams. The Hudson Bay Railway Line 7 that crosses the Nelson 8 en route to Churchill to the north connects it to the south. Also planes land at the airstrip north of town 9, and PR 280 10 links Gillam with Long Spruce and Sundance further downstream. South of the dam is a converter station 11 with power lines radiating out to the north 12, southeast 13, south 14, and southwest 15. They are identified as light-toned straight lines cutting across the natural landscape on which, even in mid-June, there are snow patches 16.

Figure 16.31: The Kettle Rapids Power Station and Gillam

Figure 16.31: The Kettle Rapids Power Station and Gillam

Figure 16.31

Vertical air photograph: A27821-78

Flight height: 25,500 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.849 mm

Scale: 1:50,000 (approx.)

Date: June 14, 1992

Location: Township 85; Range 18 and 19E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54D Kettle Rapids

1:50,000 54D/7 Kettle Rapids


16.32: The Location of the Limestone Power Generating Station

The Limestone Station on the Nelson River 1 is the newest and the furthest downstream of the hydro stations on the Nelson. The site of the dam 2 is clearly seen on this satellite image. It is located just above a set of rapids seen as a variation in colour of the river on this image 3. Also visible is the path of the Hudson Bay Railway line 4 en route north to Churchill. PR 280 from Gillam 5 is also visible leading to Sundance 6 on the north bank of the river. Two roads 7, 8 lead westward to a gravel pit 9. The Limestone River 10 enters the Nelson just below the dam.

Figure 16.32: The Location of the Limestone Power Generating Station

Figure 16.32: The Location of the Limestone Power Generating Station

Figure 16.32

Satellite Image: Google Earth 2006 Digital Globe

Scale: 1:195,000 (approx.)

Location: 56º 31.5' N; 94º 07' W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54D Kettle Rapids

                    1:50,000 54D/9 Amery


16.33: The Limestone Power Generating Station, Ground Level Photo

To date this is the largest generating station on the Nelson River. The generators are seen on the right and the spillway gates on the left. The photo was taken looking upstream.

Figure 16.33: The Limestone Power Generating Station, Ground Level Photo

Figure 16.33: The Limestone Power Generating Station, Ground Level Photo

Figure 16.33

Ground photo: Manitoba Hydro

Location: Township 87; Range 22E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54D Kettle Rapids

                    1:50,000 54D/9 Amery


16.34: Part of the Lower Churchill River Before the Churchill Diversion

The upper Churchill River in Saskatchewan and northwest and north-central Manitoba consists of a series of lakes connected by short stretches of river channel, but in northeast Manitoba it has a more clearly defined channel. Shown here is part of the lower Churchill 1 below Billard Lake 2 just off the western edge of the photo. The river flows east from Billard Lake before taking a sharp bend 3—probably structurally determined—to flow northwards. Several islands 4 are located within the river channel with sand bars 5 extending from them as well as at the mouths of small tributaries 6. For reference purposes note the small lake 7 south of a small tributary 8.

This area exhibits typical Canadian Shield topography with numerous lakes which vary in tone from almost white 9 to almost black 10 depending on the sun/water surface/camera direction relationship. The light-gray tone 11 of much of the area is typical of open lichen woodland vegetation.[i]

Figure 16.34: Part of the Lower Churchill River Before the Churchill Diversion

Figure 16.34: Part of the Lower Churchill River Before the Churchill Diversion

Figure 16.34

Vertical air photograph: A14125-21

Flight height: 31,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 153.19 mm

Scale: 1:61,700 (approx.)

Date: July 1, 1954

Location of the small lake #7: 57º 11'N; 95º 58'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54E Herchmer

64M Northern Indian Lake

                    1:50,000 54E/4 Embleton Lake

Notes

[i] The area is located in the open lichen woodland vegetation zone. See Scott G. A. J. “Manitoba’s Ecoclimatic Regions” in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt, and C. Stadel. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, 1996, figure 4.2, 45.



16.35: Part of the Lower Churchill River After the Churchill Diversion

As part of the hydropower strategy for Manitoba, Manitoba Hydro decided to divert a proportion of the flow of the Churchill River into the more southerly Nelson. Shown here is part of the Churchill River 1 downstream from the diversion after it was completed in 1976. This photo has a much larger scale than figure 16.34, so the small lake 7 on figure 16.34 is much larger on this photo 2. Also, details of the bends on a small tributary stream 3 can be seen.

Reduction in the discharge of the Churchill has produced several changes compared to figure 16.34. A large sand bar 4 is now above water level—small gullies drain from it down to the river 5—whereas on figure 16.34 it was at or below water level. Similarly a sand bar attached to an island 6 is now above water level, and dark-toned trees 7 are growing on it.

At the large scale of this photo it is possible to see details of the open lichen woodland; dark-toned coniferous trees with triangular shadows can be seen over much of the area 8.

Figure 16.35: Part of the Lower Churchill River After the Churchill Diversion

Figure 16.35: Part of the Lower Churchill River After the Churchill Diversion

Figure 16.35

Vertical air photograph: MH827068401-13

Flight height: 6,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:10,200 (approx.)

Date: September 21, 1982

Location of small lake 2: 57º 11'N; 95º 58' W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 54 E Herchmer

                    1:50,000 54E/4 Embleton Lake


16.36: Part of the Lower Churchill River, Post Diversion

The diversion of a large percentage of the flow of the Churchill River into the Nelson has drastically altered the appearance of the Churchill downstream from the diversion. Shown here is a section of the eastward-flowing Churchill River 1 between Northern Indian Lake, branches of which can be seen in the west 2, and Fidler Lake to the southeast. The present river channel is dark-toned 3 whereas those areas that used to be covered by the river are light-toned 4. Two sets of rapids are visible, one in the west 5 and the other—Kirkness Rapids—6 in the east. This lake-strewn area of the Canadian Shield is covered by open lichen woodland 7.

Figure 16.36: Part of the Lower Churchill River, Post Diversion

Figure 16.36: Part of the Lower Churchill River, Post Diversion

Figure 16.36

Vertical air photograph: MH 827068401-155

Flight height: 25,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:50,200 (approx.)

Date: September 21, 1982

Location of Kirkness Rapids: 57º 21'N; 97º 03'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 64H Northern Indian Lake

                    1:50,000 64H/6 Kilfoyle Lake


16.37: Thermal Power Station at Brandon

Approximately 98 percent of Manitoba’s electricity is provided by hydro power stations, mainly on the Winnipeg, Saskatchewan and Nelson rivers. However, the province has two thermal power stations as back up in case of low flow along the rivers, mainly in winter. Although not much water is used in the actual production of thermal electricity, a good assured water supply is needed for cooling. Consequently the two stations are on rivers, that in Selkirk on the Red River, and that in Brandon on the Assiniboine River 1 shown here. A weir 2 has been built across the eastward-flowing Assiniboine to maintain water level at the intake 3 to the plant. The power station 4 is located south of the river. It has three “smoke” stacks 5 that throw shadows 6 almost due west, indicating that this photo was taken early in the morning. Three sets of transformers 7 are located west of the plant. At the time the photo was taken the fuel was coal, although the plant has now converted to natural gas. Coal was brought from Saskatchewan on a railway line 8 that passes south of the plant. A train carrying coal can be seen 9 as well as a large dark-toned coal pile 10 from which a conveyor 11 leads to the plant. Between the plant and the river is a holding pond 12 surrounded by an embankment 13 in which wastewater is held before being released along a channel 14 into the Assiniboine River.

Also visible are Koch Fertilizer Canada Ltd. 15 in the southwest, several irregular gravel pits 16, and the CP line in the north 17.

Figure 16.37: Thermal Power Station at Brandon

Figure 16.37: Thermal Power Station at Brandon

Figure 16.37

Vertical air photograph: 7207 No 00 005

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:14,400 (approx.)

Date: 1972

Location: Township 10; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon (Information dates from 1964).

 


16.38: Manitoba Hydro’s Brandon Power Station

This low oblique photograph—so called because it is not taken with the camera pointing obliquely rather than vertically downward and the horizon is not showing—shows the thermal power station 1 at Brandon south of the Assiniboine River 2. The photograph was taken looking northeast. A stone weir 3 has been built across the river to maintain the water at the intake 4 for the power plant. The plant has three stacks 5, one taller than the others 6. A pile of coal, the fuel supply for the station, can be seen in the top right 7 with a conveyor 8 leading from it to the plant. A railway line with several sidings 9 crosses the area from west to east. Two transformer stations 10 are visible as well as several pylons 11 supporting power lines leading from the station. In the background surrounded by an embankment 12 is an area 13 where waste water is collected before being released into the Assiniboine River. Little person-power is needed to run the station; no more than about 20 vehicles are visible in the parking lot 14.

Figure 16.38: Manitoba Hydro’s Brandon Power Station

Figure 16.38: Manitoba Hydro’s Brandon Power Station

Figure 16.38

Low oblique photograph

Manitoba Hydro

Scale: variable

Date:

Location: Township 10; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

1:25,000 62 G/13d Brandon  (Information dates from 1964.)


16.39: Flooding in and near the Little Saskatchewan River Valley

This spring photo shows the upper reaches of the Little Saskatchewan River 1 between Riding Mountain National Park, off the photo to the north, and the Keeseekoowenin First Nation 2 in the south. The meanders of the Little Saskatchewan River 3 can be seen but are partly obscured by the fact that the valley floor 4 is flooded and therefore dark-toned. This area is covered by ground moraine with numerous small lakes (sloughs) in the hollows 5. All the sloughs west of the river are mapped as intermittent lakes on the 1:50,000 map of the area[i], but at the time the photo was taken, soon after snow melt, they are all water-filled. The same is true of lakes east of the river with the exception of one large lake in the northeast that is mapped as a permanent lake 6.

Note the variation in lake tone from almost black in the west 7 to almost white—due to specular reflection—in the southeast 8. Note also the difference in land use between the First Nations—almost completely wooded—and the surrounding area—mainly cleared for agriculture.

Figure 16.39: Flooding in and near the Little Saskatchewan River Valley

Figure 16.39: Flooding in and near the Little Saskatchewan River Valley

Figure 16.39

Vertical air photograph: A15226-8

Flight height: 20,000 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.26 mm

Scale: 1:35,200 (approx.)

Date: May 24, 1956

Location: Townships 18 and 19; Range 21WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/9 Elphinstone

Notes

[i] Elphinstone 62K/9.



16.40: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Shellmouth

This photo shows extensive spring flooding in the Assiniboine Valley. Here the Assiniboine River occupies a wide 0.5 miles (0.8 km) to 1.0 mile (1.6 km) flat-floored spillway. Once the river has overtopped its banks, there is little to stop water from spreading over the whole spillway floor. The normal channel of the south-flowing river 1 and some abandoned channels 2 can be identified with floodwater on both sides 3. Where the valley floor is wooded, treetops project above the floodwaters 4. The bridge 5 on PR 549 6 is intact, but the road has been breached by floodwater further west 7, with a sediment plume 8 extending downstream. A north/south gravel road is flooded in several places 9.

Also of note on this photo are gravel pits 10, one with a pile of processed gravel 11 excavated into Assiniboine River terraces; the former course of the CP railway line (long abandoned) 12; and the small hamlet of Shellmouth 13.

Figure 16.40: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Shellmouth

Figure 16.40: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Shellmouth

Figure 16.40

Vertical air photograph: MB 95001-154

Flight height: 6,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.815 mm

Scale 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: May 13, 1995

Location: Township 22; Range 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis

 


16.41: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

This radar image of part of the Assiniboine Valley near Virden was obtained in the spring of 1995, the same year as the photo in figure 16.40. Radar is an active form of remote sensing in that signals are sent out from a source, hit the ground, and are partly reflected to a recording apparatus. In the case of side-looking, airborne radar pulses are sent out from the side of the plane and the imagery is consequently “side-lighted.” Several factors affect the strength of the return signal: 1) Terrain orientation—slopes that face the incident radar beam give a strong return signal and are consequently light-toned on the final image; 2) Surface roughness—rough surfaces, termed diffuse reflectors, scatter the incident signal and some of the backscatter is picked up by the sensor resulting in a light tone on the image (figure 16.41a). In contrast, smooth surfaces, termed specular reflectors, allow the incident signal to bounce off them, away from the sensor; the result is a dark tone on the image (figure 16.41b). A bright image is also produced by “corner reflectors” in situations in which a lot of right angles occur, for example, buildings in a town (figure 16.41c).

16.41a) diffuse reflector   16.41b) specular reflector   16.41c) corner reflector[i]

 

3) Electrical characteristics of terrain features—“one measure of an object’s electrical character is the complex dialectric constant…. In the microwave part of the spectrum (which radar uses), most natural materials have a dialectric constant in the range 3 to 8 when dry. On the other hand, water has a dialectric constant of 80. Thus, the presence of moisture in either soil or vegetation can significantly increase radar reflectivity…. Metal objects also give high returns”[ii] and consequently appear light-toned on radar images.

“In the early spring (1995) a combination of above normal snow precipitation and unseasonably cool temperatures in the south-western part of Manitoba resulted in a large snow melt causing the Assiniboine to flood.”[iii] Although the Shellmouth Dam completed in 1967 partially controls flow along the Assiniboine, the Qu’Appelle and other tributaries enter the Assiniboine River below the dam and upstream from the location show here. Spring flooding is still common. “The 1995 peak flows for the Assiniboine were 360 m3/s, 566 m3/s, and 300 m3/s as compared to mean flows of 32 m3/s, 81 m3/s, 115 m3/s recorded for April at the three stations respectively since 1913.”[iv]

The very dark tones on the image delimit the flooded area 1. These result from specular reflectance from the smooth floodwater surface. The river channel 2 and three abandoned channels 3 are also dark-toned for the same reason. The light tones in the flood plain result from diffuse reflectance from rough treetop surfaces 4. The east wall of the Assiniboine Valley, facing the direction from which the incident rays came, is light-toned 5 whereas the west wall is darker 6. Also light-toned are the tree covered valley sides of Bosshill Creek 7 and two small creek valleys 8 on the east wall of the spillway.

Also of note are the following:

1) Virden 9 which is mainly light toned because of the existence of corner reflectors; and 2) a light-toned metal railway line 10 compared with a dark-toned, smooth surfaced road 11 (the Trans Canada Highway) 11. Section lines can be identified 12, and note that the correction north of township 10 in this western location is over one mile (1.6 km) 13. 3) the orange rectangle indicates the area covered in figure 16.42.

Figure 16.41: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

Figure 16.41: Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

Figure 16.41

Platform CCRS (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing) Convair 580.

Imaging system: Side Looking Airborne Radar C-HH (C band horizontal transmit/receive polarization image configuration)

Scale: 1:90,000 (approx.)

Date: April 22, 1995

Location: Township 10 and 11; Ranges 25 and 26WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

Notes

[i] Lillesand, T. M. and Kiefer, R. W. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Third Edition). New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1994, figure 8.18, 621.

[ii] Lillesand, T. M. and Kiefer, R. W. op. cit. 1994, 673.

[iii] Information from Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) web site ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca

[iv] Informatin from Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) web site ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca



16.42: Comparison of a Radar Image and a Vertical Air Photo of Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

A. Radar Image

Radar has the advantage over air photographs in that it is not light dependant; images can be obtained at night, and if the correct wave length is used it can penetrate clouds. Shown here is a large-scale radar image with a vertical photograph taken at the same time to the right of it. As in figure 16.41 the very dark tones delimit the flooded area 1, the river channel 2, and one oxbow 3. The very light-toned areas on the flood plain are the tree-covered areas 4; the rough surface of the treetops sends back a strong signal. The east bank, facing the direction from which waves were propagated, is light-toned 5 compared with the west bank 6. PR 259, which has a smooth surface and is therefore dark-toned 7, crosses the Assiniboine spillway. The very light-toned spots, north of the road, are pylons 8 carrying an electrical power line. Two other lines of pylons can be seen further south 9 , 10.

B. Air Photo

The air photo taken at this same time has a slightly larger scale. Although most of the river channel 1 and the flooded area 2, which are light-toned, are visible, some parts are obscured by cloud 3. In contrast to the radar image, treed areas are dark-toned 4, and PR 259 is light-toned 5 due to light reflection from its gravel surface. There is no evidence of the power lines.

Figure 16.42: Comparison of a Radar Image and a Vertical Air Photo of Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

Figure 16.42: Comparison of a Radar Image and a Vertical Air Photo of Flooding in the Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

A.    Radar Image

Platform: Convair 580 Plane

Imaging system: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

C Band

HH Transmit/receive polarization

Scale: 1:31,700 (approx.)

Date: April 22, 1995

Location: Township 10 and 11; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

              1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

B.    Air Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:19,000 (approx.)

Date: April 22, 1995

Location: Township 10 and 11; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

                                1:50,000 62F/15 Virden


16.43: The Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

This air photo covers part of the Assiniboine Valley shown in figure 16.42. The southward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 is light-toned due to light reflecting from sediment-laden water. An abandoned channel 2 clearly visible here is not seen on the radar image in figure 16.41 because it was completely submerged by floodwater. The tree cover in the flood plain 3 can be identified, but it is not as obvious as the light-toned representation on figures 16.41 and 16.42. The wooded west wall of the Assiniboine Spillway is dark-toned 4, whereas the more sparsely wooded east wall is lighter-toned 5,the same arrangements as on the radar image in figure 16.42 but for different reasons: in this case the light tone results from light reflected from grasses. PR 259 6 is clearly visible, but the pylons of the power lines, so obvious on the radar image in figure 16.42 can only just be discerned using a magnifying glass on the original photo 7. Note also the dike east of the Assiniboine 8 built to contain floodwaters. Clearly it was not successful in 1995 as on both figure 16.41 and 16.42 the dark area representing floodwaters extends right to the east wall of the spillway. Possibly the dike was allowed to deteriorate after the Shellmouth Dam was built upstream in 1967, the landowners having a false sense of security from the existence of the dam. However, although Shellmouth was expected to reduce flooding in the Assiniboine Valley, it was never claimed that it would eliminate flooding.

Figure 16.43: The Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

Figure 16.43: The Assiniboine Valley Near Virden

Figure 16.43

Vertical air photograph: A16429-40

Flight height: 10,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: October 29, 1958

Location: Township 10; Range 25WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62F Virden

1:50,000 62F/15 Virden


16.44: Flooding at Brandon in 1955

The City of Brandon has a history of flooding dating from its earliest days; the original location of the settlement at Grand Valley just off the photo to the east was flooded in 1881 and 1882. Soon after, residents either abandoned their homes or moved businesses to the new site of Brandon selected by the CPR on the dry south side of the river 1.[i] The present city is located partly in the Assiniboine Spillway, which has a steep north side (known locally as the North Hill) 2 and a more gentle south side. As the spillway floor is susceptible to flooding, most residential and commercial development is now located outside this area, mainly to the south 3. In 1955 there was little development north of the river 4, but the situation has changed dramatically in recent years.

The photo shows the situation on May 18, 1955 at which time most of the spillway floor was flooded. Floodwaters 5 appear a light-grey tone because they are sediment laden. In some places the Assiniboine River channel can be seen 6, outlined by woodland 7, but in others the channel is difficult to locate 8. Flood waters are bounded by roads and dikes in several locations: 1) in the northwest, floodwaters are delimited by a dike 9; 2) further east the Grand Valley Road 10, which misleadingly does not lead to the old settlement of Grand Valley east of the present city, marks the northern extent of floodwaters; 3) further east Manitoba Avenue hinders the northward spread 11; 4) First Street 12, which curves around a meander, stops water spreading east; and 5) south of the river a dike between 26th Street and 3rd Street 13[ii] protects land to the south. In this protected area a former branch of the river (locally called The Snye) 14 is marked by dark-toned water, dark because it is not moving and therefore not sediment laden. The floodwaters are constricted between the Grand Valley Road 10 and the southern dike 15 increasing the flood water level to the west.

Other points of note on this photo are 1) very few residences exist in the flooded area; 2) 18th Street was flooded at the time 16, so entrance into the city from the north was restricted to First Street 17; 3) in 1955 most residential and commercial development was located on the gentle south side of the spillway 18; 4) the two railway lines CP 19 and CN 20 both avoid the flooded area; and 5) part of a golf course is seen in the west 21; about 9 holes are visible, the rest are on the flood plain and therefore inundated 22.

Figure 16.44: Flooding at Brandon in 1955

Figure 16.44: Flooding at Brandon in 1955

Figure 16.44

Air photograph: A15215-145

Flight height: 17,940 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.60 mm

Scale: 1:31,700 (approx.)

Date: May 18, 1955

Location: Township 10; Ranges 18 and 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon 

Notes

[i] For details see Welsted J. “Brandon and the Assiniboine River” in Brandon: Geographical Perspectives on the Wheat City eds, J. Welsted, J. Everitt and C. Stadel. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 1988, 9-35.

[ii] Welsted, J. op. cit. 1988, plate 2.1, 18.



16.45: Flooding Along the Assiniboine River in Spruce Woods Provincial Park

East of Brandon, the Assiniboine River 1 no longer flows on the floor of a glacial spillway; but is incised into the delta it deposited into Glacial Lake Agassiz. Even so the river has managed to create a narrow flood plain that is frequently inundated in spring. Nineteen -seventy-six was a bad year for floods by rivers in southern Manitoba. The photo shown here was taken on April 10 of that year, soon after the spring melt; in fact snow (very light-toned of course) can still be seen on the steep south wall 2 and the gentler north wall 3 of the valley. The river channel is imaged as a dull grey 4 except where specular reflection produces a light spot 5. At least five abandoned channels can be identified in this area 6, that in the southeast being Big Island 7, newer than that in the southwest DeGueldres Lake 8. They are both still partially ice covered, with snow on the surface producing a very light tone 9 compared with the grey of open water 10. Some fields are partially covered by water 11, whereas others are dry with dark-toned wet patches 12. Attempts—partially successful—have been made to protect fields from flooding; for example, a dike 13 encircles the abandoned meander loop inside DeGueldres Lake in the southwest. Another dike protects a field to the east 14, although judging by its dark tone, 15 it is very wet. North of these two areas, floodwaters have encroached behind another dike 16.

Figure 16.45: Flooding Along the Assiniboine River in Spruce Woods Provincial Park

Figure 16.45: Flooding Along the Assiniboine River in Spruce Woods Provincial Park

Figure 16.45

Vertical air photograph: A7612-00-123

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: April 10, 1976

Location: Township 8; Range 13WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/11 Glenboro


16.46: The Red River Valley Near Emerson

The photo shows part of the Red River Valley on either side of the Canada/U.S. border 1 drained by the northward-flowing Red River 2. The only other drainage channels identifiable are Riviere aux Marais 3, a left bank tributary of the Red and Main Drain 4 that enters the Roseau River (off the photo to the north), a right bank Red tributary.

The town of Emerson 5 (population of 689 in 2006) is located just north of the international border with West Lynn to its west 6, and Pembina 7 just to the south of the border. Letellier 8 is located near the northern edge of the photo.

Several transport routes follow the Red River Valley. The main road is PTH 75 9 which becomes #29 10 in the U.S.A. Two minor roads are located east 11 and west 12 of the Red River, and highway 200 runs northeast from Emerson 13 and then north 14 to Dominion City (off the photo). The only prominent east/west road is PR 201 15 which passes through Letellier.

Railway lines are also prominent: the CN line 16 parallels PTH 75 and then splits in the south, one branch running into the U.S.A. 17 and the other southeast into Emerson 18. The CP line runs east of the Red River 19. Three lines converge on Emerson from the northeast 20, southeast 21, and south 22.

Figure 16.46: The Red River Valley Near Emerson

Figure 16.46: The Red River Valley Near Emerson

Figure 16.46

Vertical air photograph: A21821-71

Flight height: 23,370 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.55 mm

Scale: 1:85,600 (approx.)

Date: August 10, 1970

Location: Townships 1 and 2; Ranges 1, 2 and 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/3 Emerson


16.47: Flooding in the Southern Red River Valley in May 1950

“From the beginning of written records, flooding has been a major hazard for the occupants of the Red River Valley. Accounts from the Red River settlement period describe numerous floods.” Major floods occurred in 1826, 1852, and 1861. “Ironically, however, because most of Manitoba’s population growth occurred during a period of little flooding, by 1950 few people were aware of the potential threat.”[i]. The 1950 flood that profoundly affected Winnipeg was the first major flood of the 20th century. Flooding is, of course, no respecter of arbitrary political boundaries. On this photo medium grey-toned floodwaters cover much of the eastern half of the area shown 1 both north and south of the Canada/U.S.A. border 2. The very light-toned area in the west 3 is the result of specular reflection from floodwaters; but the light tones 4 in the channel of the northeast-flowing Red 5 probably result from floating ice.

The town of Emerson, the community of West Lynn, and the transport routes in the area are profoundly affected by the flooding. The eastern part of Emerson 6, including the railway marshalling yards 7 and the business district 8, is mainly above the flood level with only patchy flooding indicated by dark tones 9. The cemetery in the east 10 is flooded with surrounding trees projecting above flood level 11. The worst effect is seen in the west where most of the residential area is flooded 12. West Lynn west of the Red River is almost completely flooded 13.

The effect on transport routes is well illustrated with roads being more drastically affected than railway lines. PTH 75 14, the main north/south road in the Red River Valley, is covered in several places 15; at one location water can be seen rushing northward across the highway 16. Several vehicles are stranded on the road 17 between flooded areas. A secondary road west of the river channel 18 disappears completely beneath floodwaters, as does another minor road 19 south of PTH 75. Railway lines usually located on embankments are not so drastically affected. The CN line 20 and marshalling yards 21 in the west are above water, and further east the line runs like a causeway 22 across the valley; there is, though, a break 23 just west of the river channel. Many train cars are located on the lines 24, some of which are almost certainly delayed by flooding.

In this area the long lot system of land division is in operation; field boundaries running generally east/west can be seen 25, some of which project just above the water in flooded areas 26.

Figure 16.47: Flooding in the Southern Red River Valley in May 1950

Figure 16.47: Flooding in the Southern Red River Valley in May 1950

Figure 16.47

Vertical air photograph: A12445-212

Flight height: 8,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,200 (approx.)

Date: May 7, 1950

Location: Township 1; Range 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/6 Morris

Notes

[i] Rannie, W. F. “Flooding and Flood Protection on the Red River Plain” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel, op. cit. 1996, 283-284.



16.48: Flooding in Central Winnipeg in 1950

In the 1950 flood on the Red River Plain “almost 1,700 km2 along the river were inundated and all towns were evacuated…. In Winnipeg 10,500 homes were flooded and more than 100,000 people relocated, despite the seven-week diking operation by thousands of military and civilian personnel…. Direct costs of flood fighting and damage claims were about $30 million, and true costs may have exceeded $100 million.”[i] Shown here is the situation in central Winnipeg on May 7, 1950. Winnipeg’s three major rivers are visible. The Red River 1 meanders northwards through the city; water can be seen rushing under the Provencher Bridge 2 and a railway bridge to the north 3. The Red is joined from the west by the Assiniboine, lighter in tone 4, and crossed by Bridge of the Old Forts 5 and two railway bridges further downstream 6, 7. The Seine River enters the Red from the south; its channel though is visible only near the southern edge of the photo 8. Nearer the Red floodwaters—light grey-toned—obscur the channel 9. It is in this area and south of the Red River west of the junction of the Seine and Red 10 that flooding is most widespread.

The light grey-toned floodwaters cover mostly parks, for example along the Seine 11, Whittier Park 12, Stephen Juba Park 13, and Norquay Community Centre 14; and industrial areas, for example at the Forks 15 and the northern part of Point Douglas 16, as well as along the Seine River 17. However, some residential areas close to the river channels are affected, for example, on the west side of the Red River west of Point Douglas 18, the area west of Whittier Park 19, and on the east side of the Seine 20.

Winnipeg’s main roads are easily identified; Portage Avenue 21 intersects Main Street 22 west of the Red. The western approaches to Provencher Bridge 23 are flooded as is Provencher Boulevard where it crosses the Seine 24. Both CP 25 and CN 26 railway lines can be seen; as they are built on embankments, they are not flooded.

The photo illustrates the usefulness of air photos in documenting past conditions. The rail yards at the Forks 27 have been replaced by a park area (see figures 12.19 and 12.20), and only the western of the two railway bridges across the Assiniboine is still in use. The reservoir in the east 28 is now abandoned. Although it was close to flooded land, floodwater did not get into the municipal water supply, sparing Winnipeg a much greater disaster than what occurred. The Redwood Bridge 29 and the Louise Bridge 30 were in existence but there was no Disraeli Bridge which now exists between the two 31. St. Boniface Basilica, cross-shaped in plan 32, was destroyed by fire in 1968 and never replaced in its original form.

At the time the photo was taken wind was from the southeast, evidenced by the northwestward drift of smoke plumes in the eastern part of the photo 33.

Figure 16.48: Flooding in Central Winnipeg in 1950

Figure 16.48: Flooding in Central Winnipeg in 1950

Figure 16.48

Vertical air photograph: A12445-146

Flight height: 8,900 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,300 (approx.)

Date: May 7, 1950

Location: Township 11; Range 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/5 Roland

Notes

[i] Rannie, W. F. op. cit. 1996, 283.



16.49: The South End of the Red River Floodway

The system designed to protect Winnipeg from floods consists of three major structural elements. “The largest is the Red River Floodway, a 47 km excavated channel that can divert up to 1,700 cubic meters per second (cms) around the city….A second channel, the Assiniboine Diversion 3 km west of Portage la Prairie, can divert up to 700 cms from the Assiniboine River to Lake Manitoba, relieving stress on the Red River through Winnipeg and providing protection along the lower Assininboine. Finally, the Shellmouth Dam and reservoir on the upper Assiniboine offers protection to Brandon, further controls the amount of water in the lower Assiniboine and provides a supply of water to maintain flow in dry year”[i].

Shown here is the northward-flowing Red River 1 and the entrance to the Red River Floodway 2. At this location the normal summer depth of water is 10 feet. An earth plug 3 across the entrance to the floodway is seven feet high to prevent ice from entering the floodway. Its crest is 27 feet above the river bottom. “The floodway can be used to carry part of the flow of the Red River but only when river levels rise to a point above 17 feet higher than the normal summer level”[ii]. The flow along the Red is controlled by the inlet control structure—a dam—across the Red 4. The floodway which bypasses Winnipeg to the east is 29 miles (46.6 km) long and involved the excavation of 100 million cubic yards (76.46 cubic meters) of earth 40 percent as much as the Panama Canal[iii]. At the eastern edge of this photo it is 2000 feet (609.6 m) from top edge to top edge. It reenters the Red River at Lockport, downstream from Winnipeg. Entering the Red River from the west is the small La Salle River 5. South of it extending west from the control structure is a dike 6 designed to prevent flood water from the Red River Plains entering the La Salle, gaining access to the Red River, in effect bypassing the floodway control and entering Winnipeg “by the back door.” This structure, given various names such as “Z dike” and “Brunkild dike” received great prominence during the 1997 flood when it had to be hastily extended west across the plain as far as Brunkild.

PTH 75 7 enters Winnipeg from the south, passing through the suburb of St. Norbert 8 just south of a cloverleaf 9 interchange on the perimeter highway (PTH 100) 10. Cars and trucks can be seen on the cloverleaf. East of the Red is PR 200 11 which crosses the floodway on a bridge 12. Building the floodway involved not only massive excavation, but also construction of numerous road and rail bridges across it, carrying power lines over it, as well as diverting the flow of the Seine River, a right bank tributary of the Red, under it. The wide irregular light toned line 13 in the south indicates the route followed by a gas pipeline, excavation for the line resulting in a lighter tone. Although it goes under the Z dike 14, PTH 75 15 and the Red 16, it just misses the floodway.

The long lot system of land division clearly influences field shapes that are long and narrow running back from the river 17, and road directions—west southwest/east northeast 18—especially east of the Red.

Figure 16.49: The South End of the Red River Floodway

Figure 16.49: The South End of the Red River Floodway

Figure 16.49

Vertical air photograph: A27254-12

Flight height: 13,300 feet; lens focal length: 152.063 mm

Scale: 1:25,100 (approx.)

Date: April 14, 1998

Location: Township 9; Range 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg

Notes

[i] Rannie, W. F. op. cit. 1996, 283.

[ii] The Red River Floodway. Winnipeg: Manitoba Natural Resources. Pamphlet, n.d.

[iii] The Red River Floodway. Winnipeg: Manitoba Natural Resources. Pamphlet, n.d.



16.50: The South End of the Red River Floodway During the 1997 Flood

This high oblique photograph was taken on May 4, 1997 near the maximum of the 1997 flood. It is taken looking northeast along the floodway 1 that at the time was carrying 65,000 cubic feet per second. The Red River 2 flows to the northwest through the control structure 3. The flow of the Red above the floodway was 138,000 cfs, 73,000 cfs of which was allowed through the control structure. It can be seen that despite the floodway parts of southern Winnipeg are flooded 4. PR 200 5, which leads south, disappears beneath the water (“The Red Sea”) soon after it crosses the floodway 6.

Figure 16.50: The South End of the Red River Floodway During the 1997 Flood

Figure 16.50: The South End of the Red River Floodway During the 1997 Flood

Figure 16.50

High oblique photograph

Date: May 4, 1997

Source: Manitoba Water Stewardship Web Site, www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/

Location: Township 9; Range 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg


16.51: The Red River Floodway at Birds Hill

Shown here is part of the Red River Floodway 1 in the northeast, just southeast of Bird’s Hill (off the photo to the left). The channel cuts through the Bird’s Hill esker complex requiring the deepest excavation anywhere along its course. Sand and gravel pits east of the floodway 2 have destroyed the continuity of the esker surface; in several places water now occupies the bottom of the pits 3. Light-toned areas on the floodway 4 indicate that sand and gravel outcrop on the sides of the channel. Two channelized streams 5 flow along the sides of the floodway in the south, that to the east eventually running down into the floodway. PTH 59 6, which runs along the east side of the Red River and the east side of Lake Winnipeg to Victoria Beach, crosses the floodway 7 and becomes a divided highway to the east 8.

In addition to floodway features the photo shows very clearly the juxtaposition of the long lot system of land division—based on the Red River—to the west and the DLS system, with its square sections, to the east. The contact is best seen where a partial section (34, 11, 4E) 9 comes into contact with the long lot systems to the west 10. Although fields in both areas are small, the orientation is different—east/west in the partial section 11 and northwest/southeast in the long lot area 12. Section 35, township 11, range 4E 13 is markedly misshapen, more like a parallelogram than the ideal square. Also it is divided into many small fields 14, more like the situation in the long lot areas but with north/south or east/west orientation. Dwellings are located mainly along the peripheries of the sections 15.

The floodway shown in figures 16.49, 16.50, and 16.51 has been remarkably successful. It has been used in 17 springs since it was completed in 1968 at a cost of $63 million. It was used in 1979 when Red River flows were just as high as in 1950 and in 1997 when they were greater. However, it is still not big enough to cope with a flood as big as that in 1826 so plans are underway to increase its carrying capacity.

Figure 16.51: The Red River Floodway at Birds Hill

Figure 16.51: The Red River Floodway at Birds Hill

Figure 16.51

Vertical air photograph: A27254-33

Flight height: 13,300 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.033 mm

Scale: 1:25,100 (approx.)

Date: April 14, 1988

Location: Township 11; Range 4E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg


16.52: The Portage Dam and Diversion

A dam has been built across the Assiniboine River above Portage la Prairie to divert water into a floodway at times of high flow, thus reducing the possibility of flooding at Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg. On this large-scale, colour infrared photo, the dam 1, a spillway 2, and the beginning of the floodway 3 can be seen. The dam backs up water necessitating the building of a dike 4 to prevent flooding of nearby agricultural land 5. The blue/green colour of the Assiniboine 6 indicates that it has a high suspended sediment load, and in one location 7 the pink colour indicates that algae are growing in a stagnant area.

Note also the following: 1) meander scrolls are visible south of the river 8 indicating previous river positions and influencing crop growth. Areas of poor growth which are almost white have a linear form 9 corresponding to the shape of the scrolls; 2) deciduous trees are red, have a mottled texture 10, and throw rounded shadows 11; 3) narrow fields east of the river channel 12 reflect the influence of the long lot system of land division used in this area; and 4) the twinned Trans-Canada Highway with service roads on both sides 13 cuts across the northeast corner.

Figure 16.52: The Portage Dam and Diversion

Figure 16.52: The Portage Dam and Diversion

Figure 16.52

Vertical colour infrared photograph

Prairie Agri Photo

Scale: 1:9,400 (approx.)

Date: June 1986

Location: Township 11; Range 7 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/16 Portage la Prairie


16.53: The Assiniboine River/Shell River Junction Before the Construction of the Shellmouth Dam

The photo shows the southward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 near the junction with its left bank tributary, the Shell River 2. Thunder Creek 3 flows across the southeast corner on its way south to join the Assiniboine (off the photograph), and a small unnamed creek 4 joins the Assiniboine from the north. The Assiniboine flows on a steep-sided, flat-floored spillway just over a mile (1.6 km) wide at this location 5. In the north the Assiniboine is surprisingly straight 6, but further south and west it meanders 7 with many abandoned channels 8. The Shell also has a meandering form especially where it flows across the spillway floor 9. The Shellmouth Dam, completed in 1967, was built across the Assiniboine just below the Shell junction along the dashed line 10.

In what was in 1956 a rather remote part of the province, there is little settlement and few transport routes. The hamlet of Shellmouth 11 can be seen in the west with the CN railway line 12 passing through it. It angles down the east side of the spillway 13, runs perpendicularly across the spillway floor 14, and angles up the west side of the spillway 15, a route designed to achieve minimum gradients. PR 482 16 can be seen in the north, and a gravel road leading to Shellmouth 17 takes two jogs, one to pass between two sloughs 18 and the other to decrease the gradient down the spillway side 19.

Figure 16.53: The Assiniboine River/Shell River Junction Before the Construction of the Shellmouth Dam

Figure 16.53: The Assiniboine River/Shell River Junction Before the Construction of the Shellmouth Dam

Figure 16.53

Vertical air photograph: A15537-130

Flight height: 20,000 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:36,200 (approx.)

Date: October 10, 1956

Location: Townships 22 and 23; Range 29WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis


16.54: The Shellmouth Dam and Lake of the Prairies

The Shellmouth Dam 1 built across the Assiniboine River 2 and completed in 1967 is part of a three-pronged strategy—the Red River Floodway, and the Portage Floodway are the other two—to reduce flooding at Winnipeg. It also provides flood protection to Brandon and Portage la Prairie as well as ensuring a reliable flow during the summer through these cities that get their municipal water supply from the Assiniboine. The area has also become the location of an attractive provincial park—Asessippi Park—that provides opportunities for fishing, boating, camping, and associated activities. Blackbird Creek 3 and Bell Creek 4 flow into the Assiniboine from the north dissecting the north wall of the Assiniboine Glacial Spillway.

The dam backs up water into the Assiniboine 5 and Shell 6 valleys creating Lake of the Prairies 7 that extends north and west into Saskatchewan. The dam’s spillway can be seen at the northwest end 8, and a riparian channel 9 carries water into the meandering Assiniboine 10 which flows west then south past Shellmouth 11 located on a terrace 12 above the spillway floor.

The dam carries PR 482 13 across the Assiniboine; it then runs north 14 past Dropmore 15 and on into Saskatchewan. Another east/west gravel road 16 bends down the east wall of the spillway 17, and then passes through Shellmouth 18 and up the west wall of the spillway 19. The CN railway line 20—now abandoned—runs through Shellmouth; across the spillway 21, along the west side of Lake of the Prairies 22, and then past Dropmore 23 and into Saskatchewan.

This photo covers the Manitoba/Saskatchewan border 24 that runs along the 29/30WI range line. At the northern boundary of township 22, this line jogs west about 1¼ miles (2 km) 25. This jog is repeated every four townships north from the 49th parallel, starting at the township line between township 2 and township 3 and finishing at 56ºN, from where it is a straight line following the 106ºW line of longitude.[i]

Figure 16.54: The Shellmouth Dam and Lake of the Prairies

Figure 16.54: The Shellmouth Dam and Lake of the Prairies

Figure 16.54

Vertical air photograph: A25047-21

Flight height: 24,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:50,700 (approx.)

Date: August 5, 1978

Location: Townships 22 and 23; Ranges 29 and 30WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62K Riding Mountain

                    1:50,000 62K/14 Inglis

Notes

[i] Welsted, J. “Straight or Crooked: An Assessment of Manitoba’s Boundaries” in The Yorkton Papers: Research by Prairie Geographers eds. J. Welsted and J. Everitt. Brandon: Brandon University, Department of Geography. 1997, 180-190.



16.55: Diversion Channel at St. Pierre Jolys

One strategy to cope with flooding is to divert a stream or river around the vulnerable area. At St Pierre Jolys, Joubert Creek has been re- routed south 1 and west 2 of the main built-up area. Indications of its former natural channel can be seen in the south 3.

St. Pierre is a genuine crossroads centre in eastern Manitoba, and even has a central “plaza”. Established as a Métis long lot settlement after the Riel Resistance…St. Pierre gradually developed into a village, focused around the church and a few shops.”[i] PTH 59 4 runs north/south and PR 205 5 east/west. A secondary road 6 (northwest/southeast) meets at the intersection to produce the central “plaza” 7. The two large buildings to the northeast are a hockey arena 8 and a curling rink 9. A school 10 is located north of these, and the large building on the secondary road 11 is probably a hospital. Note there is no indication of a railway line.

Figure 16.55: Diversion Channel at St. Pierre Jolys

Figure 16.55: Diversion Channel at St. Pierre Jolys

Figure 16.55

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale 1:5,300 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Townships 5 and 6, Range 4 E (Note St. Pierre is located in an area surveyed into long lots; the location given is what it would be in the DLS system.)

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/7 St. Malo

Notes

[i] Warkentin, J. and Ruggles, R. I. Historical Atlas of Manitoba. Winnipeg: Manitoba Historical Society. 1970, 370. A map of St. Pierré is included on page 371.



16.56: The Red River Flood, May 1997

The 1997 “Flood of the Century” in the Red River Plains was the largest in the 20th century, possibly exceeded by only the 1826 flood. Much of the Red River Plain was inundated but by this date the structural measures prompted by the 1950 flood were in place. The floodway around Winnipeg existed, as did a dike, the west dike, extending west from the floodway inlet. Also ring dikes had been built around eight communities on the plain (Brunkild, Dominion City, Emerson, Letellier, Morris, St. Adolphe, St. Jean Baptiste, and Rosenort) as well as the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation. These measures proved to be of great value, preventing flooding of the protected areas and reducing the damage caused. By 1997 radar imaging was an effective sensing mechanism, enabling coverage of the whole of the Red River Plain independent of lighting conditions and cloud cover.

The image shown here covers the central part of the Red River Plain from the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation in the south 1 to Winnipeg in the north 2. It was obtained on May 11, 1997 at approximately 7:40 a.m.[i] This was slightly after the maximum extent of over-bank flooding which was on May 4. Although the inundated area had declined “significant reduction in inundation occurred only after May 15.”[ii] Areas of standing water have been enhanced with a blue colour.

The blue colouring shows clearly the flooded area, relatively narrow in the south and widening to the north. The course of the Red River can be traced from the southern edge 3, passing west of the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation 4, east of St. Jean Baptiste 5, Morris 6, and St. Agathe 7, and west of St. Adolphe 8 before reaching the Floodway Inlet 9. The wide blue band east of Winnipeg is the Floodway 10, which at the time carried 48,500 cfs. The flow in the Red River was 93,000 cfs at Ste. Agathe and 104,000 cfs above the floodway. The course of the Red River through Winnipeg with evidence of flooding in some of the meander loops is very evident 11. The Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation, St. Jean, Morris, and St. Adolphe are protected by ring dikes and therefore appear as grey patches on the image. Morris, the largest of the settlements, is most obvious. An area east of it and the Red River is not flooded 12 which provokes the question “why was not a settlement located there rather than where St Morris is located?” The answer may lie in the fact that St. Morris was established and grew during the first half of the 20th century when there was little flooding, and the west bank location had some advantages over the east.

Further west, Rosenort 13 and Brunkild 14 are protected by ring dikes. Ste. Agathe 15 is flooded, although it was protected by a dike on its east (river) side. Also flooded was Grand Pointe 16, located on the Seine River just south of the floodway. “Farther away from the Red River, there is some localized flooding, particularly northwest of Brunkild 17. This flooding is due to melt water ponding on the low parts of sections of land as well as from smaller streams in the Red River Valley.”[iii] A similar explanation can be given for flooded areas west of the Floodway Inlet 18.

The location of the west dike west of the Floodway Inlet is easily detected by the difference between blue flooded areas and grey non-flooded areas 19. The dike built to prevent floodwater getting into the La Salle River 20 and flooding Winnipeg “by the back door” was successful in that respect. However, while it secured flood-free conditions for farmers north of it, those to the south endured flooded fields long past normal seeding time and were thus economically disadvantaged.

Other river channels that can be seen are 1) the Assiniboine River with flooding along some of its meanders west of 21 and within Winnipeg 22; 2) Shannon Creek, the straight blue line west of Morris 23; 3) Roseau River, a right bank tributary of the Red which flows through the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation 24; and 4) the Rat River which joins the Red downstream from Ste. Agathe 25. However, Marsh River, which flows between the Red and the Rat, is completely obscured by floodwater.

Figure 16.56: The Red River Flood, May 1997

Figure 16.56: The Red River Flood, May 1997

Figure 16.56

Radarsat image

Scale: 1:374,000 (approx.)

Date: May 11, 1997

Location: Central Red River Plain

Map sheet: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

Notes

[ii] Wilson, B. A. and Rasid, H. “Monitoring the 1997 flood in the Red River Valley using hydrologic régimes and RADARSAT imagery”. The Canadian Geographer. vol. 9, no. 1., Spring 2005, 100-109.



16.57: Emerson in the Summer of 2000

The photo shows the town of Emerson 1 east of the north-flowing Red River 2 and the hamlet of West Lynne 3 west of the river. The brown colour of the Red River indicates that it is heavily laden with suspended sediment. The International Border 4 is just discernable as a cutline through a wooded area. Both settlements are protected from floods by dikes 5, that which surrounds Emerson projecting south of the border 6. Sewage lagoons 7 are located north of West Lynne; these must have been inundated in the 1997 flood. Two bridges 8 cross the Red; one carries the CN railway line 9 and the other PTH 75 10. The road pattern in Emerson with north/south 11 and east/west 12 roads harmonizes with the DLS system. The centre of Emerson, with wider roads 13, is close to the protective dike 14.

Figure 16.57: Emerson in the Summer of 2000

Figure 16.57: Emerson in the Summer of 2000

Figure 16.57

Vertical colour air photograph by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:  lens focal length:

Scale: 1:9,900 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: Township 1; Range 2 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/3 Emerson


16.58: Flooding Near Emerson in the Spring of 1997

The photo taken looking northward shows the Red River Plain near the International Border during the 1997 flood. The normal channel of the Red River, which at times carried more than 120,000 cfs, is picked out by woodland along its banks 1. A ring dike 2 protected Emerson 3, as well some land 4 south of the border 5, from flooding. The CN railway line 6 crosses the Red River to the west, and the CP line 7 ,which runs northeast from Emerson, appears to be flooded north of the ring dike 8. Flood waters, no respecter of political boundaries, cover vast areas north 9 and south 10 of the border.

Figure 16.58: Flooding Near Emerson in the Spring of 1997

Figure 16.58: Flooding Near Emerson in the Spring of 1997

Figure 16.58

Low oblique photograph

Source: Manitoba Water Stewardship

Date: April/May 1997

Location: Township 1; Ranges 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/3 Emerson


16.59: The Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation, May 1997

The photo shows the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation 1 in May 1997, protected from flooding by a ring dike 2. Taken looking south-southwest, the photo shows the extent of flooding and the Red River channel to the right 3. The Roseau River flows into the Red River near the right hand edge of the photo 4. The east/west PR 201, which passes through the southern part of the First Nation 5,  is completely flooded to east 6 and west 7.

Figure 16.59: The Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation, May 1997

Figure 16.59: The Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation, May 1997

Figure 16.59

High oblique photo

Source: www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/

Date: May 30, 1997

Location: Township 2; Range 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/3 Emerson


16.60: The Central Part of the Red River Plain

The photo shows part of the excessively flat Red River Plain through which the Red River 1 meanders northwards passing east of St. Jean Baptiste 2 and Morris 3. Two abandoned channels can be seen east of Morris 4. Much of the drainage to the Red River from the west has been channelized. Furthest south the Plum River 5, which enters the Red 6 below St. Jean Baptiste, is joined by the straightened Deadhorse Creek 7. To the north, Kronsgart Drain is channelized in the west 8 and eventually wanders into the Red 9. Furthest north, the Morris River 10 is joined by Shannon Creek that is channelized in the west 11.

Morris is located at the intersection of north/south trending PTH 75 12 and east/west PTH 23 13. In the south PTH 75 bypasses St. Jean 14. The CN railway line follows the river 15 passing through both Morris 16 and St. Jean 17, whereas the CP line 18 passes through Morris 19 and then leads off to the southwest 20. A ring dike 21 has been built around Morris to protect it from flooding.

The long lot system of land division is practised along the Red resulting in long narrow fields 22, whereas the DLS system with its characteristic square sections is practised east 23 and west 24 of the riverbank zone. Although it has no topographic representation, it should be noted that the principal meridian of the DLS system 25 runs through this area.

Figure 16.60: The Central Part of the Red River Plain

Figure 16.60: The Central Part of the Red River Plain

Figure 16.60

Vertical air photograph: A21744-31

Flight height: 22,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 88.611 mm

Scale: 1:82,300 (approx.)

Date: July 25, 1970

Location: Township 3, 4 and 5; Range 1W and 1 and 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/6 Morris


16.61: Ring Dike at Morris

The town of Morris (population of 1,643 in 2006) is the largest community on the Red River Plain that it is subject to flooding. Located at the junction of the north-flowing Red River 1 and the Morris River 2 that drains a large area of the western part of the Red River Plain, it is particularly vulnerable to flooding. However, a dike 3 has been built completely around the town. The only gaps are where transport routes pass through; these have to be filled if flooding is imminent. The routes include the north/south PTH 75 4 between Winnipeg and the U.S. border, and the east/west PTH 23 5 which crosses the Red River east of town 6. Two railway lines are located in the west; the CN line 7 has two elevators on it west of town 8 and a group of round metal grain-storage bins in the south 9. The CP line 10 is west of the CN line.

The CBD of Morris is located along highway 75 11, (a busy transport route) particularly at the intersection with highway 23 12. It shows up as a lighter coloured area because of the presence of large buildings and the absence of trees. The town is laid out in a grid pattern harmonizing with the DLS system except a newer development in the south 13. In the southeast is a racetrack 14, the centrepiece of the Manitoba Stampede and Exhibition. Held in July, it is the only professional rodeo in Manitoba and is part of the Canadian Rodeo Tour. To the west are a large grandstand 15 and several large buildings 16 that are probably exhibition halls. Note that the sewage lagoons 17 are outside the ring dike and therefore vulnerable to flooding.

Figure 16.61: Ring Dike at Morris

Figure 16.61: Ring Dike at Morris

Figure 16.61

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:   lens focal length:

Scale: 1:10,100 (approx.)

Date: 2000

Location: townships 4 and 5; Range 1 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/6 Morris


16.62: Flooding Near Morris in 1997

This photo taken looking west-northwest shows the town of Morris 1 appearing as an island in the Red River “sea”. A ring dike 2 built as a result of studies following the disastrous 1950 Red River flood protects it. This photo was taken on April 30, 1997 when the water level was 783.34 feet, near the peak for that year.[i]

The Red River channel 3 can just be seen to the right (east) of the town with PTH 23 4 crossing it and leading into Morris. The north/south trending highway 75 can be seen crossing the town 5, but it disappears beneath floodwaters to the left 6 (south) and right (north) 7 of town.

Figure 16.62: Flooding Near Morris in 1997

Figure 16.62: Flooding Near Morris in 1997

Figure 16.62

High oblique photograph

Source: www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/

Location: Townships 4 and 5; Range 1 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

1:50,000 62H/6 Morris

Notes


16.63: Ring Dike at St. Jean Baptiste

St. Jean Baptiste 1 located west of the north-flowing Red River 2 is, like Morris to the north of it, protected from flooding by a ring dike 3. In this case the divided PTH 75 4 between Winnipeg and the U.S. border bypasses the community, but the old north/south road 5 used to pass through it. The CN railway line 6 runs just east of this road. PR 217 exits St. Jean Baptiste and crosses the Red 7. The main commercial area of St. Jean Baptiste is along the old north/south road that widens in the centre of “town”. Large buildings 8 are principally located along this road, but two large buildings are east of the railway line; they are probably a hockey arena 9 and a curling rink 10.

It is noticeable that the sewage lagoons 11 and a recreational area 12 are located outside the dike. Flooding of the recreational area would not cause great distress, but flooding of the sewage lagoons could cause major problems.

Figure 16.63: Ring Dike at St. Jean Baptiste

Figure 16.63: Ring Dike at St. Jean Baptiste

Figure 16.63

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height:   lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2000

Location: Township 4; Range 1 E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/6 Morris


16.64: Flooding Near St. Jean Baptiste in 1997

This photo of St. Jean Baptiste 1 taken looking southward illustrates the effectiveness of some of the ring dikes. Although the village is completely surrounded by floodwater 2 the dike 3 protects the village that seems to be suffering no flooding. Trees growing along its banks pick out the channel of the meandering Red River 4. PTH 75 that bypasses the village to the west, can be seen in the distance 5 but it disappears beneath the “sea” 6 as it approaches the village.

Figure 16.64: Flooding Near St. Jean Baptiste in 1997

Figure 16.64: Flooding Near St. Jean Baptiste in 1997

Figure 16.64

High oblique photograph

Source: www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/

Date: April, 1997

Location: Townships 3 and 4; Ranges 1E and 2E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

1:50,000 62H/6 Morris


16.65: Ring Dike at St. Adolphe

St. Adolphe, located on the east side of the northward-flowing Red River 1, is another community protected by a ring dike 2. North/south trending PR 200 3 runs through the western part of “town”, and east/west PR 210 4 defines the northern edge of the community and crosses the Red River in the northwest 5. PR 200 is divided as it passes through St. Adolphe and has several large buildings just east of it, one cluster in the south 6 and the other in the centre 7. In the southeast are two large buildings, probably the hockey arena 8 and curling rink 9.

The road pattern in St. Adolphe is unusual in that, although St. Adolphe is in an area where the long lot survey applied, it has not influenced the road system; nor are the roads in harmony with the DLS system. Crescents 10, bays 11, and circles can be seen 12. Note also there is no railway line.

In the northeast stubble is being burned 13 indicating a late summer/early fall photo. Wind direction at the time the photo was taken was from the south.

Figure 16.65: Ring Dike at St. Adolphe

Figure 16.65: Ring Dike at St. Adolphe

Figure 16.65

Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale:

Date: 2000

Location: Township 8; Range 3 E (St. Adolphe lies within the area of long lot surveys, but this is the location if the DLS system applied)

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/11 St. Adolphe


16.66: Flooding Near St. Adolphe in 1997

St. Adolphe 1 is another community effectively protected by a ring dike 2. The photograph taken near the peak of the 1997 flood shows the extent of flooding in the area. The channel of the northward-flowing Red River is just discernable, more easily in the south 3 than in the north 4. Inside the dike there is no clear evidence of flooding. Also, several other areas 5 and individual dwellings 6 are protected by ring dikes. In some cases, though, diking has not been effective in protecting buildings 7, and farmland is completely flooded 8.

The flood played havoc with transport routes. PTH 75 9 is mostly covered, and the CN railway line just visible in the south 10 has almost completely disappeared. Similarly PR 200 runs through the village 11 and then disappears to the south 12, although trees and buildings projecting above the water 13 pick out its general route. Highway 210 passes through St. Adolphe 14, crosses the Red River 15, and then disappears 16. Along its route to the west, a racetrack is just visible 17.

The irregular white line in the south 18 is a band of snow remaining from a late snowfall in the spring of 1997.

Figure 16.66: Flooding Near St. Adolphe in 1997

Figure 16.66: Flooding Near St. Adolphe in 1997

Figure 16.66

Vertical air photograph: MB 97002-155

Flight height: 10,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.093 mm

Scale: 1:20,000 (approx.)

Date: May 1, 1997

Location: Township 8; Range 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1 :50,000 62H/11 St. Adolphe


16.67: Part of the Central Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe

The Red River 1 crosses the area from southwest to northeast. The Rat River 2 from the south into which flows Marsh River 3 joins it. Another unnamed right bank tributary 4 joins the Red near the top of the photo. St. Agathe 5 is located west of the Red with PTH 75 6 bypassing it to the west. The CN railway line 7 roughly parallels this road. PR 200 8 runs alongside the river to the east, and PR 305 9 is the main east/west road. Part of Niverville 10 is seen near the eastern edge of the photo, and Otterburne 11 is located on the Rat River in the southeast.

The long lot system produces long narrow fields on either side of the Red River 12, whereas the characteristic squares of the DLS system are seen to east 13 and west 14.

The boundary between townships 6 and 7 is a correction line; as this area is east of the principal meridian, the correction is to the east 15.

Figure 16.67: Part of the Central Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe

Figure 16.67: Part of the Central Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe

Figure 16.67

Vertical air photograph: A21666-236

Flight height: 22,240 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 85.64 mm

Scale: 1:79,200 (approx.)

Date: July 21, 1970

Location: Townships 6, 7 and 8; Ranges 2, 3 and 4E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/11 St. Adolphe


16.68: Flooding of the Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe, 1997

This photograph illustrates the extensiveness of the Red River flood of 1997. The photo taken near the time of maximum inundation is of the area north and east of Ste. Agathe 1. The course of the Red River is just discernable in the west 2, picked out mainly by trees growing along its banks 3. The same is true of Rat River 4 that joins the Red near the top of the photo 5. PTH 75 6 that bypasses St. Agathe to the west is flooded in places 7, as are PR 200 8 east of the Red and the east/west PR 305 9. Ring dikes around them 10 protect some farmsteads, but others are flooded 11, as is most of the agricultural land in the area.

One of the reasons for the severity of the 1997 flood was a late-season heavy snowfall, and some of that snow still persists 12 on May 1 when this photo was taken.

Figure 16.68: Flooding of the Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe, 1997

Figure 16.68: Flooding of the Red River Plain Near Ste. Agathe, 1997

Figure 16.68

Vertical air photograph: MB 97002-71

Flight height: 10,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.093 mm

Scale 1:20,000

Date: May 1, 1997

Location: Township 7; Range 3E

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/11 St. Adolphe


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