Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
Click for chapter introduction
Manitoba is not usually associated with industry but the “facts…contradict common perceptions, and at last manufacturing in Manitoba is a force to be reckoned with. In the late 1970s, at the peak of the long period of economic growth following World War II, Manitoba depended on manufacturing to provide 13.4 percent of its jobs compared with 10 percent provided by agriculture.”[i]
Avery and Berlin, authors of one of the best-known books about air-photo interpretation,[ii] classify industries into three categories:
1) extraction industries, including oil drilling, rock quarrying, gravel pits, and mining.
2) processing industries which are divided into three: a) mechanical processing including saw mills, grain mills, ore concentration plants, hydroelectric plants, water purification plants, and sewage treatment plants; b) chemical processing including petroleum refining and production of chemicals; and c) heat processing including thermal electric plants, cement production plants, and iron production plants.
3) fabrication industries which involve the “use of the output of processing industries to form or assemble finished products.”[iii] Examples are production of structural steel, shipbuilding, and locomotive and car production. These are the most difficult to identify on air photographs because activities are hidden from view in well-constructed buildings and enclosures.
Not all of these industries are found in Manitoba, but a few examples are shown here, and others have been shown in previous photos, for example, oil drilling (figures 13.11 and 13.12), gravel pits (figures 13.1 to 13.8), and mining (figures 13.9 and 13.10). Some activities associated with water—hydroelectric plants and sewage treatment plants—are included in the section on water resources.
[i] Todd, D. “Manitoba’s Manufacturing Sector”, in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People. eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt, and C. Stadel ,Winnipeg: The Univeristy of Manitoba Press. 1996, 255.
[ii] Avery, T. E. and Berlin, G. L. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Fifth Edition). New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1992, 395.
[iii] Avery, T. E. and Berlin, G. L. op. cit. 1992, 396.
15.2: Industry in Central and Eastern Winnipeg
This old photograph shows the essential elements in the development of the city—the rivers and the railway lines—as well as some of the industry located in Saint Boniface, east of the Red River.
The wide Red River 1, crossed by seven bridges (five road 2 and two railway 3), meanders from south to north through the city. The smaller Assiniboine River 4, crossed by six bridges (four road 5 and two railway 6), enters the Red from the west at The Forks 7. Fort Garry, the original site of the city, is located just north of this junction. Finally the Seine River 8, still treed along part of its course 9, enters the Red just below the Red/Assiniboine junction.
Winnipeg was largely created by the railways and is still today much influenced by them. On the photo, CP lines enter the city from the northeast 10 (from which runs a curved spur line 11), east 12, and south 13. These lines join and cross the Red at Point Douglas 14. Once through Point Douglas the line spreads out into rail yards that extend from Main Street 15 to Keewatin Street (off the photo to the west) a distance of over three miles (5 km).
CN lines 16 enter from the east, join in north Saint Boniface 17, cross the Red downstream from The Forks 18, and then spread out into railways at The Forks 19. Two bridges 6 carry lines across the Assiniboine and southward to Fort Rouge Yards 20, the north end of which, with a roundhouse 21, can be seen near the south edge of the photo. On the Saint Boniface side of the river a branch line runs southward in the direction of Norwood Flats 22.
In addition to these national lines the Greater Winnipeg Water District line 23 follows the direction of the aqueduct that carries water to Winnipeg from Shoal Lake on Lake of the Woods. Near the western terminus of the line are two reservoirs 24 no longer used.
The Saint Boniface industrial area, located mainly east of the Seine River, is one of three main industrial areas in Winnipeg, the other two being the Saint James Industrial area in the northwest and the Inkster Industrial Park in the north. Industries located in these two are mainly light, high-tech, and cleaner than those in Saint Boniface.
The Saint Boniface area includes several large buildings 25, some of which are probably grain elevators clearly related to the railway lines; in at least two cases 26 rail cars can be seen drawn up beside the buildings. Evidence of two other industries is visible. In the extreme east is the St. Boniface Oil Refinery 27 (no longer in operation); oil storage tanks 28 (white, circular) are seen in the west with the refining area in the east 29. Here a flare stack is producing smoke which drifts westwards 30 on an easterly wind. Another large oil storage tank 31 (circular, dark grey) is located west of the refinery. Finally on the extreme eastern edge of the photo are the sheds and holding pens 32 of the Saint Boniface Stockyards.
Figure 15.2: Industry in Central and Eastern Winnipeg
Vertical air photograph: A17982-3
Flight height: 12,545 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.98 mm
Scale: 1:24,000 (approx.)
Date: June 14, 1963
Location Township 10 and 11; Range 3 East
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg
1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg