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Table of Contents
Foreword
Preface
Glossary

Chapter 15: Industry/Manufacturing

Introduction

Manitoba is not usually associated with industry but the “facts…contradict common perceptions, and at last manufacturing in Manitoba is a force to be reckoned with. In the late 1970s, at the peak of the long period of economic growth following World War II, Manitoba depended on manufacturing to provide 13.4 percent of its jobs compared with 10 percent provided by agriculture.”[i]

Avery and Berlin, authors of one of the best-known books about air-photo interpretation,[ii] classify industries into three categories:

1)     extraction industries, including oil drilling, rock quarrying, gravel pits, and mining.

2)     processing industries which are divided into three: a) mechanical processing including saw mills, grain mills, ore concentration plants, hydroelectric plants, water purification plants, and sewage treatment plants; b) chemical processing including petroleum refining and production of chemicals; and c) heat processing including thermal electric plants, cement production plants, and iron production plants.

3)     fabrication industries which involve the “use of the output of processing industries to form or assemble finished products.”[iii] Examples are production of structural steel, shipbuilding, and locomotive and car production. These are the most difficult to identify on air photographs because activities are hidden from view in well-constructed buildings and enclosures.

Not all of these industries are found in Manitoba, but a few examples are shown here, and others have been shown in previous photos, for example, oil drilling (figures 13.11 and 13.12), gravel pits (figures 13.1 to 13.8), and mining (figures 13.9 and 13.10). Some activities associated with water—hydroelectric plants and sewage treatment plants—are included in the section on water resources.



Notes

[i] Todd, D. “Manitoba’s Manufacturing Sector”, in The Geography of Manitoba: Its Land and Its People. eds. J. Welsted, J. Everitt, and C. Stadel ,Winnipeg: The Univeristy of Manitoba Press. 1996, 255.

[ii] Avery, T. E. and Berlin, G. L. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Fifth Edition). New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1992, 395.

[iii] Avery, T. E. and Berlin, G. L. op. cit. 1992, 396.

15.1: Oil Wells Near Virden

Oil production in Manitoba is limited to the southwest of the province where eleven designated oil fields are located.[i] “In December 1992, of 1,547 wells capable of production, 1,387 wells were actually producing oil in Manitoba…wells in the Virden, Waskada and Daly fields accounted for 40 percent, 24 percent, and 19 percent respectively of Manitoba’s total production.”[ii] Virden is regarded as Manitoba’s “oil capital,” the depth to producing formations in the area being 600 m.

Despite the large number of wells they have little impact on the natural environment. The oil pumps take up only a few square metres of land with slightly more being used where oil and saltwater storage tanks are located nearby.[iii] The surrounding land can be used for agriculture. Pumps are small enough that they are scarcely visible on air photos. However, a few are indicated 1; pipelines running between wellheads 2 often best pick them out.

The photo shows the town of Virden 3 located mainly in section 22, township 10, range 26WI. Scallion Creek 4 flows through the town to join Bosshill Creek 5 to the south which then joins Gopher Creek 6, which is in turn a right bank tributary of the Assiniboine River 7.

The CP railway line 8 runs southeast/northwest through Virden before splitting in the north 9. Roads in the town are parallel to, and at right angles, to the railway. The Trans-Canada Highway 10 is twinned 11 as it bypasses Virden to the north. PR 259 12, which crosses the Assiniboine River north of town, eventually joins the Trans-Canada Highway off the photo to the west.

Other features to note are the Virden airfield with grassed runways 13 and a terminal building 14; a drive-in cinema northeast of town 15; and a racetrack 16 with an associated arena 17 and curling rink 18 northwest of it.

Figure 15.1: Oil Wells Near Virden

Figure 15.1: Oil Wells Near Virden

 

Figure 15.1

Vertical air photograph: A20810-14

Flight height: 17,140 feet; lens focal length: 152.073 mm

Scale: 1:30,900 (approx.)

Date: September 9, 1968

Location: Townships 10 and 11; Ranges 25 and 26 WI

Map sheets 1:250,000 62F Virden

                   1:50,000 62F/15 Virden

 

Notes

[i] Young, H. R. “Mining and Extractive Industries in Manitoba,” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel, op. cit. 1996, figure 16.12, 246.

[ii] Young, H. R. op. cit. 1996, 246-247.

[iii] Young, H. R. op. cit. 1996, figures 16.17a and 16.17b, 248.



15.2: Industry in Central and Eastern Winnipeg

This old photograph shows the essential elements in the development of the city—the rivers and the railway lines—as well as some of the industry located in Saint Boniface, east of the Red River.

The wide Red River 1, crossed by seven bridges (five road 2 and two railway 3), meanders from south to north through the city. The smaller Assiniboine River 4, crossed by six bridges (four road 5 and two railway 6), enters the Red from the west at The Forks 7. Fort Garry, the original site of the city, is located just north of this junction. Finally the Seine River 8, still treed along part of its course 9, enters the Red just below the Red/Assiniboine junction.

Winnipeg was largely created by the railways and is still today much influenced by them. On the photo, CP lines enter the city from the northeast 10 (from which runs a curved spur line 11), east 12, and south 13. These lines join and cross the Red at Point Douglas 14. Once through Point Douglas the line spreads out into rail yards that extend from Main Street 15 to Keewatin Street (off the photo to the west) a distance of over three miles (5 km).

CN lines 16 enter from the east, join in north Saint Boniface 17, cross the Red downstream from The Forks 18, and then spread out into railways at The Forks 19. Two bridges 6 carry lines across the Assiniboine and southward to Fort Rouge Yards 20, the north end of which, with a roundhouse 21, can be seen near the south edge of the photo. On the Saint Boniface side of the river a branch line runs southward in the direction of Norwood Flats 22.

In addition to these national lines the Greater Winnipeg Water District line 23 follows the direction of the aqueduct that carries water to Winnipeg from Shoal Lake on Lake of the Woods. Near the western terminus of the line are two reservoirs 24 no longer used.

The Saint Boniface industrial area, located mainly east of the Seine River, is one of three main industrial areas in Winnipeg, the other two being the Saint James Industrial area in the northwest and the Inkster Industrial Park in the north. Industries located in these two are mainly light, high-tech, and cleaner than those in Saint Boniface.

The Saint Boniface area includes several large buildings 25, some of which are probably grain elevators clearly related to the railway lines; in at least two cases 26 rail cars can be seen drawn up beside the buildings. Evidence of two other industries is visible. In the extreme east is the St. Boniface Oil Refinery 27 (no longer in operation); oil storage tanks 28 (white, circular) are seen in the west with the refining area in the east 29. Here a flare stack is producing smoke which drifts westwards 30 on an easterly wind. Another large oil storage tank 31 (circular, dark grey) is located west of the refinery. Finally on the extreme eastern edge of the photo are the sheds and holding pens 32 of the Saint Boniface Stockyards.

Figure 15.2: Industry in Central and Eastern Winnipeg

Figure 15.2: Industry in Central and Eastern Winnipeg

Figure 15.2

Vertical air photograph: A17982-3

Flight height: 12,545 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.98 mm

Scale: 1:24,000 (approx.)

Date: June 14, 1963

Location Township 10 and 11; Range 3 East

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H Winnipeg

                    1:50,000 62H/14 Winnipeg

 


15.3: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Brandon, Manitoba’s second largest city, does not house a lot of industry, but what there is concentrated in the eastern part of the city shown here.

On this photo the eastward-flowing Assiniboine River 1 is seen in the north. South of it is the Canadian Pacific Railway line 2 that spreads out into sorting yards in the west 3. A roundhouse can be seen 4, as can numerous railway cars both east 5 and west 6 of the First Street Bridge 7 that crosses both the railway line and the river. In the past the upkeep of this bridge in the City of Brandon, carrying a provincial road over the CP line and the Assiniboine, has been controversial. A spur line 8 runs southeast from the main line to an industrial area 9.

In the south is the CN line 10 that runs diagonally through section 13, township 10, range 19WI, a large part of which has been designated as an industrial park (Green Acres Industrial Park). A single line in the southeast 11 spreads out into several sidings 12 with spurs leading off to the north 13. After crossing First Street 14 as a double track, the line again spreads into an area of sidings 15. In both areas of sidings—east and west of First Street—railway cars can be seen on the lines 16. Industry in the park is designated as “light” with activities located inside large buildings 17. A haulage company—with numerous trucks visible—is located on the extreme southeast of the section 18.

The most obvious feature in the section to the east (18,10,18WI) is a large chemical plant 19, Koch Fertilizer Canada Ltd., which manufactures mainly potash fertilizer. The plant receives raw materials on a spur from the CN line 20; several cars can be seen on it 21. Within the plant round storage tanks can be seen 22 as well as several long narrow buildings 23. Two conveyor systems are seen in the south 24, and a transformer station is located in the northwest corner 25. Worker’s cars are parked on the south side of the plant 26, and to the east is a reservoir 27 which might contain waste from the plant.

Also located in 18,10,18WI are two auto wrecker’s yards; one immediately west of the chemical plant 28 and the other in the northwest corner of the section 29. Just north of the latter is a large group of electrical transformers 30. A large irregular gravel pit, exploiting the gravels of the upper Assiniboine Delta, is located in the northeast 31.

Figure 15.3: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.3: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.3

Vertical air photograph: A25397-109

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10; Ranges 18 and 19WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon


15.4: Chemical Plant and Thermal Electric Power Station East of Brandon

This photo is an extension eastward of Figure 15.3 at a slightly larger scale. In the southwest is the chemical plant seen in figure 15.3 1 with some slight differences; for example the square reservoir (#27 on figure 15.3) does not exist, but south of the plant is a reservoir 2 created by a dam 3. The reservoir empties eastward onto wasteland. Also different is the fact that part of the gravel pit in the northeast of 18,10,18WI is now flooded 4.

In the north the CPR line 5 crosses the eastward-flowing Assiniboine 6 with the Grand Valley Historical site (the original Brandon settlement) to the north 7. Downstream from the railway crossing is a weir 8 that holds back water for use in a thermal electric plant 9 to the south. This is one of two thermal plants in Manitoba—the other is in Selkirk—that act as backups, principally in winter, when the water flow through the large hydro plants in northern Manitoba is reduced. At the time the photo was taken, coal was the fuel used in the plant, but it now uses natural gas. The coal was brought in on a railway line 10 that passes south of a large dark-toned pile of coal 11. Trucks can be seen on this line 12. North of the coal pile is a building with three stacks 13. A conveyor 14 takes coal from the pile to this building. To the west are two areas of transformers 15 with a power line 16 leading west to another area of transformers 17. North of the main station is a lagoon 18 that holds wastewater before it is returned along a channel 19 to the Assiniboine 20.

The railway line continues east 21 and splits at 22 before running into a complex area of gravel pits in the northeast corner of 8, 10,18WI 23. Section 8,10,18WI appears to be occupied mainly by wasteland, but in the centre is a shelterbelt 24 that surrounds an abandoned farmhouse. In the south is a disused railway line 25.

Figure 15.4: Chemical Plant and Thermal Electric Power Station East of Brandon

Figure 15.4: Chemical Plant and Thermal Electric Power Station East of Brandon

Figure 15.4

Vertical air photograph: 7207-5

Flight height: ; lens focal length:

Scale: 1:15,100 (approx.)

Date:

Location: Township 10, Range 18W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon


15.5: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Dating from 1970 Brandon’s city boundaries extend far to the east of the built up area, providing space for industry and associated developments which are not deemed desirable for residential areas.

This photo is centred further east than figure 15.4, but many of the same things can be seen: the chemical plant in the west 1, the thermal electric plant further north 2, and the CP line 3 with the Grand Valley site to the north 4. But some changes can also be seen. The square reservoir shown on figure 15.3 (#27) 5 exists here as does another further east 6. The more circular reservoir (#2 on figure 15.4)—full on figure 15.4—is empty here 7. Also the reservoir north of the power plant has been extended eastward, and the newer part is now full 8; as well, a new discharge line has been cut through the woodland to the Assiniboine 9.

Section 8, township 10, range 18WI has changed considerably. In addition to the new reservoir in the southeast corner 6, the city’s dump now occupies the northwest quarter 10. North/south 11 and east/west 12 pits have been excavated and will eventually be filled with garbage. The circular feature in the northeast corner 13 is not identified.

A complex of gravel pits occurs at the intersection of sections 8, 9, 16 and 17 14. The railway line that serves the power station continues into this area 15, and another further south 16 is now abandoned. In the north, PR 457 17 links Brandon to the west and Shilo to the east.

Figure 15.5: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.5: Industry in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.5

Vertical air photograph: A25529-226

Flight height: 9,200 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:16,500 (approx.)

Date: August 2, 1980

Location: Township 10, Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon


15.6: Brandon From the East

This photograph, a high oblique so called because the horizon is showing, was taken looking west along Victoria Avenue 1 with Richmond Avenue 2 on the left (south); both are true east/west roads. In the foreground (left) is Koch Fertilizer Canada Ltd. 3 with the Green Acres Industrial Park 4 to the west on either side of the CN railway line 5. In the foreground is a power line 6 running to the Koch Fertilizer Plant from the thermal power station just off the photo to the right (north). At the junction of Victoria Avenue and 17th Street East 7 is Assiniboine Community College 8—one of two institutes of higher education in the city, the other being Brandon University. In the middle ground are the residential areas of Brandon 9 with the CN line 10 at an angle to the grid-like roads. Flat agricultural land surrounds the city.

Figure 15.6: Brandon From the East

Figure 15.6: Brandon From the East

Figure 15.6

Oblique air photograph

Scale: 1:12,500 approximately in middle ground along 17th Street East. Larger in foreground, smaller in background.

Date: 1987

Photograph by John Everitt

Location: Township 10; Ranges 18 and 19 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon


15.7: Gravel Pits and Chemical Plant in Eastern Brandon

This photograph of the extreme eastern part of Brandon is centred east of Figure 15.5; the square lagoon ((#6 on figure 15.5) is seen in the west 1, and the Assiniboine River 2 cuts across the northeast corner. Railway lines, some of which are clearly abandoned, can be seen in the north 3, centre 4, and southwest corner 5. Railway cars can be seen on the CN line at Leon 6.

This area situated near the apex of the Assiniboine Delta is an excellent source of gravel. Spurs from the CN line 7 run into two long (light-toned) gravel pits 8. Pits are also located in other areas; some—light-toned—appear to be active 9 whereas others are overgrown and therefore have a patchy dark tone 10, and others are filled with water 11.

In the extreme east is a chemical plant 12 close to the Assiniboine River and well removed from the built up area of the city, but still within city limits. It is served by road east from Brandon 13 and a railway line 14; trucks can be seen on the line south of the plant 15. Storage silos 16 and a conveyor system 17 can be seen. This is a much smaller plant than that shown on figures 15.3, 15.4, and 15.5; only about 12 cars and four trucks can be seen in the parking lots 18.

In addition to the industry there is some evidence of agriculture. Dugouts 19 suggest livestock grazing in this area with permeable soils developed on sand and gravel.

Figure 15.7: Gravel Pits and Chemical Plant in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.7: Gravel Pits and Chemical Plant in Eastern Brandon

Figure 15.7

Vertical air photograph: A25396-197

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10, Range 18 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon


15.8: Duck Farm in Cornwallis, Southeast of Brandon

“Industry in Brandon is tied to its agricultural base, both servicing and being serviced by its hinterland.”[i] An example of the latter situation is shown here. A large duck farm with ten sheds 1 is located in 6, 10,18WI directly south of the Koch Fertilizer Plant 2. A three-celled lagoon that accommodates waste from the farm is seen to the south 3. Although this was a duck farm at the date the photo was taken, this area is now Southview Industrial Park catering to light industries; probably its location close to an eastern access road around Brandon—constructed since the photo was taken—contributed to its creation. Treatment of animal waste from plants such as this, and more recently large hog processing plants, is becoming a contentious issue in Agro-Manitoba.

Also of interest on the photo are some gravel pits not seen on previous photos. These pits that are usually light-toned 4 are depressed areas and should not be confused with other light-toned elevated areas 5. The latter result from rain splash erosion of soils; usually they have less well-defined boundaries than gravel pits.

Aside from these features it is worth noting the irregular section line between sections 6 and 7, township 10, range 18 6. Another somewhat unusual feature in this part of Manitoba are the tree/shrub-lined boundaries between fields south of the poultry farm 7.

Figure 15.8: Duck Farm in Cornwallis, Southeast of Brandon

Figure 15.8: Duck Farm in Cornwallis, Southeast of Brandon

Figure 15.8

Vertical air photograph: A25397-107

Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm

Scale: 1:16,700 (approx.)

Date: June 9, 1980

Location: Township 10, Range 18W1

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon

                    1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon

                    1:25,000 62G/13d Brandon

Notes

[i] Curtis, P. J. “Brandon’s Manufacturing: The Agricultural Connection” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel op. cit. 1996, 264.



15.9: Forestry Industry in The Pas

The forestry industry in Manitoba is relatively minor compared with many other provinces; in 2002 Manitoba and Saskatchewan produced only two percent of Canadian lumber and a recent map[i] of Canada’s sawmills shows that only three in existed in Manitoba in 2002. A small one near Steinbach processes mixed woods, and two larger ones in Swan River and The Pas treat softwoods.

This old photo of The Pas shows the location of a wood processing plant. The wide, light-toned, sediment-laden Saskatchewan River 1 flows from west to east, emptying eventually into Lake Winnipeg. The dark, relatively clear Pasquia River 2 joins it from the south. To the south is the shallow Halcrow Lake 3.

The CN line enters the city from the south 4, crosses the Saskatchewan River 5, and continues north to Flin Flon. In the south the line spreads into a series of sidings 6 on which railcars can be seen 7. Also visible are two grain elevators 8, the most northerly in Manitoba. Spurs run from the main line in three locations 9, the northern of which 10 runs to a wood processing plant 11. There the raw materials, the processing plant, and the finished product can be seen. The raw logs 12 in the Saskatchewan River are contained within a boom 13 that extends from the railway bridge to the processing plant. Another smaller patch of logs can be seen behind a boom further west 14. The logs have been floated in from areas upstream. A smoke plume 15 spreading north on a southerly wind indicates the processing area, and processed logs are stored in rows southwest of the plant 16.

Figure 15.9: Forestry Industry in The Pas

Figure 15.9: Forestry Industry in The Pas

Figure 15.9

Vertical air photograph: A12939-413

Flight height: 8,800 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm

Scale: 1:15,800 (approx.)

Date: September 6, 1950

Location: Township 56; Range 26 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 63F The Pas

 1:50,000 63F/14 The Pas

Notes

[i] Canada’s Sawmills, Atlas of Canada included with the State of Canada’s Forest 2002-2003. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada, 2003.



15.10: The Pas in 1973

This newer, slightly larger-scale photo of The Pas illustrates the usefulness of an increase in scale to detect details and of sequential photos to detect changes.

In the south railway cars on sidings 1 and a round house 2 are clearly visible. Further north a long building with railcars beside it 3 can be seen with the railway station (dark-toned) 4 north of that.

Additions since figure 15.9 was taken include a race track north of Halcrow Lake 5, a long narrow building three blocks east of the railway line 6, and a series of large buildings southeast of that 7. The last is Keewatin Community College[i] which was at the time one of three community colleges in Manitoba, the others being Assiniboine Community College in Brandon and Red River Community College in Winnipeg. In the east a cleared area through forest 8 is followed by a power line leading to transformers 9 in the area where the wood processing plant used to be (#11 on figure 15.9). The railway spur leading to the plant still exists 10, leading to a narrow light-toned building 11. The forestry industry has not deserted The Pas but the processing plant is now located outside the city.

Other changes include a new road bridge 12, west of the railway bridge 13 across the Saskatchewan River 14; a new road leading south 15; a residential development east of the railway line 16; and a wharf 17 where the wood processing plant was located (#15 on figure 15.9).

Figure 15.10: The Pas in 1973

Figure 15.10: The Pas in 1973

Figure 15.10

Vertical air photograph: A23327-26

Flight height: 6,900 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:12,000 (approx.)

Date: June 13, 1973

Location: Township 56; Range 26 WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 63F The Pas

                    1:50,000 63F/14 The Pas

Notes

[i] What was Keewatin Community College is now The Pas campus of University College of the North.



15.11: Forest Fires in Northern Manitoba

This image obtained on June 20, 2001 shows numerous smoke plumes from fires caused by lightning strikes. The area covered measures 232 kilometres by 80 kilometres. Tufty cumulus clouds 1 obscure Southern Indian Lake. The large plume 2 northwest of Big Sand Lake 3 was reported under control on June 20, whereas the plume at the lower left (southwest) 4 was classified as out of control.[i] Other plumes can be seen south of Le Clair Lake 5, south and east of Carlson Lake 6, and near Hjalmarson Lake 7. In the next two days an additional 27 out-of-control fires were started by lightning strikes.[ii]

This area is included in the open lichen woodland vegetation zone where “better drained upland ground cover is dominated by light coloured fructicose lichens between scattered spruce.”[iii]

Figure 15.11: Forest Fires in Northern Manitoba

Figure 15.11: Forest Fires in Northern Manitoba

Figure 15.11

Data acquired by multi-angle imaging spectro radiometer (M ISR) on NASA’s Terra Satellite June 20, 2001.

Scale: 1:1,000,000 (approx.)

Date: June 20, 2001

Location of SW tip of Big Sand Lake X: 57º 27'N, 100º 02'W

Map sheets: 1:250,000 64B Uhlman Lake

64C Granville Lake

64G Big Sand Lake

64F Brochet

Notes

 

[i] Information from NASA’s website Earth Observatory.

[ii] Information from NASA’s website Earth Observatory.

[iii] Scott, G. A. J. “Manitoba’s Ecoclimatic Regions” in Welsted, Everitt and Stadel. 1996, 52.



15.12: Forest Fires over Northwest Manitoba, June 2006

This satellite image shows forest fires over northwest Manitoba 1 as well as northern Saskatchewan 2 and northern Alberta 3. Smoke is imaged as white, and places where the satellite detected actively burning fires are marked in red. A veil of smoke almost obscures Reindeer Lake 4 on the Manitoba/Saskatchewan border 5. Active fires are located east of the north end of Reindeer Lake 6, east of Barrington Lake 7, and near Southern Indian Lake 8, with a scattering further north 9. The fires were mainly triggered by lightening and caused evacuations on June 28.[i] On June 26 smoke was being blown southeast beyond Lake Winnipeg.

Figure 15.12: Forest Fires over Northwest Manitoba, June 2006

Figure 15.12: Forest Fires over Northwest Manitoba, June 2006

Figure 15.12

Satellite Image

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua Satellite

Scale: 1:66,000,000 (approx.)

Location of X=60º N, 102º W

Notes

[i] NASA Earth Observatory News, June 2006.



15.13: Location of an Ethanol Plant at Minnedosa

“Ethanol can be produced from any biological feedstocks that contain sugar, or materials that can be converted into sugar, such as starch or cellulose. In Canada, corn and wheat are used and a large quantity of the ethanol produced is destined for use as fuel. It is used by itself or mixed with gasoline to form what has been called “gasohol” the most common blend being 10% ethanol with 90% gasoline. Because the ethanol molecule contains oxygen, it allows the engine to more completely combust the fuel, resulting in less pollution. Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered a renewable fuel. A major coproduct of ethanol production is distiller’s grains (DGs), a high protein product ideally suited for feeding cattle. The DG can be either dried and marketed broadly or sold wet for use in nearby feedlots. Low grain prices, concern about climate change and changing political will have increased interest in fuel ethanol. However, the Husky Energy ethanol production facility at Minnedosa has been in operation for over 20 years. The 10 million litre capacity, wheat-based plant uses approximately 30,000 tonnes of grain annually.”[i]

The photo shows the western part of Minnedosa 1, located in the valley of the west-flowing Little Saskatchewan River 2. The ethanol plant 3 is located west of town on the north side of the Little Saskatchewan River. Nothing on the photo indicates that it is an ethanol plant. However, it is located on a railway line 4 that has many rail cars 5 on it, and it is located in a suitable wheat growing area. A similar building is located north of the railway line 6. At the date the photo was taken, the buiding was a distillery; it was not until 1980 that it became an ethanol plant that was taken over by Husky in 2000.

Other things to notice on the photo are 1) the Little Saskatchewan River has numerous cutoffs 7; 2) PTH 10 8 bypasses the town to the west and intersects PR 355 9; 3) the CP railway line runs through Minnedosa 10 and angles up the steep north side of the Little Saskatchewan valley 11; 4) a spur from the main line leads to the ethanol plant 12, and a round house 13 is located near the junction of the two lines; 5) the spur line used to continue west to the edge of the photo, but now it does not cross PTH 10 14 and PR 355 15, nor is there a bridge across the river 16 although the line can be seen on both sides 17; 6) a racetrack is located in the western part of Minnedosa 18; and 7) two gravel pits can be seen, one in the southwest 19 and the other north of the ethanol plant 20.

Figure 15.13: Location of an Ethanol Plant at Minnedosa

Figure 15.13: Location of an Ethanol Plant at Minnedosa

Figure 15.13

Vertical air photograph: A21434-44

Flight height: 9850 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 6 inches

Scale: 1:16,200 (approx.)

Date: June 3, 1970

Location: Township 15; Range 18WI

Map sheets: 1:250,000 62J Neepawa

1:50,000 62J/5 Clanwilliam

Notes

[i] Information taken from Fueling a New Economy: Exploring the Opportunities of Ethanol Production in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Keewatin Publications, 2006.



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