Chapter 13: Mining and Oil Extraction
Most hard rock mining in Manitoba takes place in the north, giving rise to mining towns, some of which (with their associated mines) are shown in Chapter 11: Northern Settlements. Some bedrock is/was exploited in quarries in the south (at Stonewall and Garson). However, “aggregate resources”—mainly gravel and sand—are distributed throughout the province. “The extensive natural deposits of sand and gravel throughout Manitoba are generally related to processes associated with the deglaciation of Manitoba at the end of the last Ice Age…. During deglaciation, sand and gravel accumulated in moraines, eskers, delta complexes, and beach deposits, and along meltwater channels.”[i] For example, the Birds Hill esker-delta complex (figure 3.64) northeast of Winnipeg is the main source of sand and gravel for the city. Oil extraction, confined to the southwest, is detected by surface indicators—pumpheads (grass hoppers), storage tanks, and pipelines. Examples of some of the locations are shown in the following figures.
13.8: Sand/Gravel Pits in Lake Agassiz Strandlines Northwest of Miami
Also noticeable on this photo are: a) the wooded eastern escarpment of Pembina Hills 7; b) the headwaters of the eastward-flowing Tobacco Creek 8; and c) a loop followed by the CN line 9 as it climbs up the Pembina Escarpment from Miami to Deerwood.
Figure 13.8: Sand/Gravel Pits in Lake Agassiz Strandlines Northwest of Miami
Vertical air photograph: A16182-214
Flight height: 10,050 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.4 mm
Scale: 1:18,100 (approx.)
Date: July 22, 1958
Location: Township 5; Range 7W1
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon