Chapter 13: Mining and Oil Extraction
Most hard rock mining in Manitoba takes place in the north, giving rise to mining towns, some of which (with their associated mines) are shown in Chapter 11: Northern Settlements. Some bedrock is/was exploited in quarries in the south (at Stonewall and Garson). However, “aggregate resources”—mainly gravel and sand—are distributed throughout the province. “The extensive natural deposits of sand and gravel throughout Manitoba are generally related to processes associated with the deglaciation of Manitoba at the end of the last Ice Age…. During deglaciation, sand and gravel accumulated in moraines, eskers, delta complexes, and beach deposits, and along meltwater channels.”[i] For example, the Birds Hill esker-delta complex (figure 3.64) northeast of Winnipeg is the main source of sand and gravel for the city. Oil extraction, confined to the southwest, is detected by surface indicators—pumpheads (grass hoppers), storage tanks, and pipelines. Examples of some of the locations are shown in the following figures.
13.6: Sand/Gravel Pits in the Upper Part of the Assiniboine Delta East of Brandon
The area is located three miles (5 km) east of the built-up area of
Several other items can be seen on the photo. The land surface is very dry because of the permeability of the underlying sediments. This results in sparse patchy natural vegetation in the form of clumps of trees (dark-toned) 15. The land is used to graze cattle, evidenced by the abundance of dugouts 16. The only evidence of crop growth is in the southeast where cut lines are seen 17, possibly of hay. There is little evidence of human occupation; only three groups of buildings can be seen 18, that in the extreme northeast is associated with an industry. Gravel roads run along some section lines 19, and in one place quarter sections can be identified on the basis of land use differences 20. In the southwest is the route of a long-abandoned railway line 21.
Figure 13.6: Sand/Gravel Pits in the Upper Part of the Assiniboine Delta East of Brandon
Vertical air photograph: A25396-156
Flight height: 9,700 feet a.s.l.; lens focal length: 152.034 mm
Scale: 1:17,100 (approx.)
Date: June 9, 1980
Location: Townships 9 and 10; Range 18 WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62G Brandon
1:50,000 62G/13 Brandon