Chapter 13: Mining and Oil Extraction
Most hard rock mining in Manitoba takes place in the north, giving rise to mining towns, some of which (with their associated mines) are shown in Chapter 11: Northern Settlements. Some bedrock is/was exploited in quarries in the south (at Stonewall and Garson). However, “aggregate resources”—mainly gravel and sand—are distributed throughout the province. “The extensive natural deposits of sand and gravel throughout Manitoba are generally related to processes associated with the deglaciation of Manitoba at the end of the last Ice Age…. During deglaciation, sand and gravel accumulated in moraines, eskers, delta complexes, and beach deposits, and along meltwater channels.”[i] For example, the Birds Hill esker-delta complex (figure 3.64) northeast of Winnipeg is the main source of sand and gravel for the city. Oil extraction, confined to the southwest, is detected by surface indicators—pumpheads (grass hoppers), storage tanks, and pipelines. Examples of some of the locations are shown in the following figures.
13.13: Enbridge Oil Storage Facility Near Gretna: Small-scale Satellite Image
The Enbridge oil pipeline runs between
Also shown is the international border 6. Note that although Canada and the United States have the same land division system, the two systems do not coincide, resulting in a jog 7 of a north/south road (18 in the U.S.A. 8 and PTH 30 9 in Canada). The sections of the DLS system are obvious 10 with gravel roads along some section lines 11. Quarter sections are usually picked out on the basis of land use differences 12, although most sections in this agriculturally rich area are divided into many fields 13.
Figure 13.13: Enbridge Oil Storage Facility Near Gretna: Small-scale Satellite Image
Google Earth Terra Metrics 2006
Scale: 1:58,000 (approx.)
Location: Township 1; Ranges 1 and 2WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62H
1:50,000 62H/4 Altona