Chapter 13: Mining and Oil Extraction
Most hard rock mining in Manitoba takes place in the north, giving rise to mining towns, some of which (with their associated mines) are shown in Chapter 11: Northern Settlements. Some bedrock is/was exploited in quarries in the south (at Stonewall and Garson). However, “aggregate resources”—mainly gravel and sand—are distributed throughout the province. “The extensive natural deposits of sand and gravel throughout Manitoba are generally related to processes associated with the deglaciation of Manitoba at the end of the last Ice Age…. During deglaciation, sand and gravel accumulated in moraines, eskers, delta complexes, and beach deposits, and along meltwater channels.”[i] For example, the Birds Hill esker-delta complex (figure 3.64) northeast of Winnipeg is the main source of sand and gravel for the city. Oil extraction, confined to the southwest, is detected by surface indicators—pumpheads (grass hoppers), storage tanks, and pipelines. Examples of some of the locations are shown in the following figures.
13.10: Quarry at Garson
“The distinctive mottled pattern of the fossil-bearing Tyndall stone, an Ordovician dolomitic limestone, makes it Manitoba’s best known building stone…the name ‘Tyndall stone’ is derived from the name of the railway shipping point, approximately 3 km east of Garson, from which the quarried material was originally shipped.”[i] Shown on the photo is the small community of Garson 1 with PTH 44 2 bypassing it to the north; note that there is no sign of a railway line. The quarries 3 are located east of the community; the large grey building 4 is a shed in which the stone is prepared for market. Piles of stone are located around the building. “The Tyndall stone deposit lies in layers or beds, with the top layer located eight to fourteen feet below the ground level;”[ii] hence, the quarries are shallow with no very obvious backwall. Disused quarries, north of the existing quarry, are filled with water 5.
“Tyndall stone was first used in the construction of Lower Fort Garry in 1832”, later it was used in “St. Andrews Anglican Church, the oldest active stone church in western Canada, built in 1845.”[iii] It has also been used in many other prominent government, commercial and educational buildings including the
In addition to the quarry other things to note are that:
1) roads run north/south 6 and east/west 7 in Garson harmonizing with the DLS system, and
2) the large grey building in the north is probably an arena 8.
Figure 13.10: Quarry at Garson
Vertical colour air photo by Prairie Agri Photo
Flight height: lens focal length:
Scale: 1:8,500 (approx.)
Location: Township 13; Range 6 E
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62I Selkirk
1:50,000 62I/2 Selkirk
[i] Young, H. R. op. cit. 1996, 244-245; for a photograph of Tyndall stone see figure 16.11a.
[ii] Gillis Quarries Ltd. Company Information http://www.tyndallstone.com/companyindex.htm-lk.
[iii] Gillis Quarries Ltd. op. cit.