Chapter 13: Mining and Oil Extraction
Most hard rock mining in Manitoba takes place in the north, giving rise to mining towns, some of which (with their associated mines) are shown in Chapter 11: Northern Settlements. Some bedrock is/was exploited in quarries in the south (at Stonewall and Garson). However, “aggregate resources”—mainly gravel and sand—are distributed throughout the province. “The extensive natural deposits of sand and gravel throughout Manitoba are generally related to processes associated with the deglaciation of Manitoba at the end of the last Ice Age…. During deglaciation, sand and gravel accumulated in moraines, eskers, delta complexes, and beach deposits, and along meltwater channels.”[i] For example, the Birds Hill esker-delta complex (figure 3.64) northeast of Winnipeg is the main source of sand and gravel for the city. Oil extraction, confined to the southwest, is detected by surface indicators—pumpheads (grass hoppers), storage tanks, and pipelines. Examples of some of the locations are shown in the following figures.
13.1: Sand/Gravel Pits in a River Terrace, Little Saskatchewan Valley
The valley of the Little Saskatchewan River 1 used to carry large quantities of melt water from
Other features of note on this photo are a) the Little Saskatchewan River with many abandoned channels 4, one of which has a dam across it 5; b) two fields partly combined 6, and in one, the combine and associated truck to receive the grain can be seen 7; c) a cemetery far removed from any settlement 8—Strathclair, six miles to the south is the nearest; and d) burned stubble in the northwest 9.
Figure 13.1: Sand/Gravel Pits in a River Terrace, Little Saskatchewan Valley
Vertical air photograph: A20310-57
Flight height: 9820 feet; lens focal length: 6 inches
Scale: 1:15,600 (approx.)
Location: Township 17; Ranges 21 and 22WI
Map sheets: 1:250,000 62 K Riding Mountain
1:50,000 62K/8 Newdale