Table of Contents
2: Location, Borders, and Lakes
3: Geologic Structure and Landforms
6: Pre-historic and Early Historic Settlements
7: Survey Systems
8: Southern Hamlets, Villages, and Towns
9: Mennonite and Hutterite Settlements
10: First Nations Settlements
11: Northern Settlements
12: The Southern Cities
13: Mining and Oil Extraction
15: Industry / Manufacturing
16: Water Resources
17: Parks, Recreation, Sports
18: Transport and Communications: Past and Present
19: Legal Issues and Law Enforcement
12: The Southern Cities
Click for chapter introduction
All except one of Manitoba’s cities (Flin Flon) are located in the south. They range enormously in size from the newest, Winkler (9,106 in 2006) to Winnipeg, the capital city that has a greater population (633,451 in 2006) than all the others combined. Cities vary in form and function. Winkler, Selkirk, Portage la Prairie, Brandon and Winnipeg can be regarded as railway cities in that significant elements of their layout are railway determined. Also Selkirk, Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie and Brandon are river cities owing their existence in part to their location on the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Steinbach is unusual in that it is not on a railway line. Its original layout was determined by a small northwest flowing stream (Steibach Creek); the result is similar to the pattern in Dauphin. In all cases development has spread beyond the original core with residential bays and crescents and some industrial areas near the fringes. The long lots based on its three rivers—the Red, Assiniboine, and Seine--profoundly influence Winnipeg’s road pattern. Numerous railway lines (past and present) are also influential in the layout of the capital.
12.16: The Location of Winnipeg
The line running across the southern edge 38 is a flaw in the imagery.
On this false-colour Landsat image of southern Manitoba, the colours have been manipulated so that areas reflecting large quantities of infrared radiation—mainly healthy vegetation—are imaged as light to dark blue 1. Winnipeg is located at the centre of the image 2 at the junction of the Red 3 and Assiniboine Rivers 4. The smaller Seine River 5, which enters the Red from the southeast, is also just visible.
The image was obtained in the spring (May 14, 1973) when the discharge of the rivers was high. Consequently, the Red in particular is easily picked out as is the Assiniboine upstream from the dam at Portage la Prairie 6. Crescent Lake in Portage la Prairie 7 is also visible. In the northeast the course of the Winnipeg River 8 is easily identified. Lakes Manitoba 9 and Winnipeg 10 appear in copper tones with sediment plumes 11 visible in both. Other lakes are North 12, East 13, and West 14 Shoal Lake in the Interlake region. Delta Marsh 15 at the south end of Lake Manitoba and the Red River delta 16 at the south end of Lake Winnipeg are clearly represented.
The darker-toned brownish areas surrounding the city (defined by the dashed line) are agricultural areas developed on Lake Agassiz clays and silty clays. This area extends south into the U.S.A. 17, west to Portage la Prairie 18, northwest along the west shore of Lake Winnipeg 19, northeast along the valley of the Brokenhead River 20, and east to the Canadian Shield in southeast Manitoba 21.
Woodland and wetland areas appear as light and dark-blue, particularly in the east where forest intermingles with swamps and bogs 22. Two isolated areas are the Mars Sand Hills 23 and Birds Hill Provincial Park 24. Much of the Interlake area 25 and Pembina Mountain 26 are pale blue indicating an abundance of natural vegetation.
Some cultural features—including several roads—are identifiable. The Trans-Canada Highway can be seen east 27 and west 28 of the city with the bypass 29 surrounding it. PTH 15 30 enters the city from the east and PTH 3 31 from the southwest. Bypassing Winnipeg to the east is the wide Red River Floodway 32, and the Portage Floodway 33 can be seen near the western edge. Along the Red River the influence of the long lot survey system can be detected 34, in contrast to the checkerboard pattern 35 of the DLS over most of the area. For some reason roads are particularly obvious in the Interlake area, with highway 229 west from Winnipeg Beach 36 and PTH 17 with two jogs 37 being most noticeable.
Figure 12.16: The Location of Winnipeg
Landsat composite image; bands 5 (0.6-0.7 micrometres-green); 6 (0.7-0.8 micrometres-red, and 7 (0.8-1.1 micrometres-infrared)
Date: May 14, 1973
Scale: 1:1,000,000 (approx.)